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Recherche, Développement et Innovation en Génie Electrique


1VERMEERSCH Pierre, GRUSON François, MERLIN Michael Marc Claude, GUILLAUD Xavier, EGROT Philippe
"Full Energy Management of EO-AAC: Toward a Dynamic Equivalence with MMC"
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 36, N°. 6, p. 3882-3892, 12,
Energy management in modular type converters constitutes a key aspect of their operational stability. This paper introduces a full energy management structure for the Extended Overlap-Alternate Arm Converter (EO-AAC) ensuring both equal energy distribution across all six stacks and the maintaining of ripple-free DC current during steady state. The performance of the control structure against active power step events is validated by detailed simulations using EMTP-RV software. Moreover, the full energy management allows the EO-AAC to have an equivalent controllability to Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) through only two conducting stacks in overlap mode ensuring the power balance. From this observation, it is demonstrated that the use of control strategy like the virtual capacitor to support HVDC system, originally designed for MMC, is possible. Gathering all these controllers leads to a general conclusion which is the dynamic equivalence between EO-AAC and MMC.
"Comparison of Energy Recovery Solutions on a Suburban DC Railway System"
IEEE transactions on Transportation Electrification, 12
"Electrical Railway Dynamical Versus Static Models for Infrastructure Planning and Operation"
IEEE transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 12
"Fundamentals of power systems modelling in the presence of converter-interfaced generation"
EPSR, 12
5ZHANG Wenjing, XU Yanliang, ZHOU Guangxu
"Research on a Novel Transverse Flux Permanent Magnet Motor With Hybrid Stator Core and Disk-Type Rotor for Industrial Robot Applications"
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 68, N°. 11, p. 11223-11233, 11
6TAHA Houssein, TANG Zuqi, HENNERON Thomas, LE MENACH Yvonnick, SALOMEZ Florentin, DUCREUX Jean-Pierre
"Numerical Simulation-Based Investigation of the Limits of Different Quasistatic Models"
Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, N°. 23, p. 11218, 11, url,
The modeling of the capacitive phenomena, including the inductive effects becomes critical, especially in the case of a power converter with high switching frequencies, supplying an electrical device. At a low frequency, the electro-quasistatic (EQS) model is widely used to study the coupled resistive-capacitive effects, while the magneto-quasistatic (MQS) model is used to describe the coupled resistive-inductive effects. When the frequency increases, the Darwin model is preferred, which is able to capture the coupled resistive-capacitive-inductive effects by neglecting the radiation effects. In this work, we are interested in specifying the limits of these models, by investigating the influence of the frequency on the electromagnetic field distributions and the impedance of electromagnetic devices. Two different examples are carried out. For the first one, to validate the Darwin model, the measurement results are provided for comparison with the simulation results, which shows a good agreement. For the second one, the simulation results from three different models are compared, for both the local field distributions and the global impedances. It is shown that the EQS model can be used as an indicator to know at which frequency the Darwin model should be applied.
7SENNI Nabil, TAÏBI Soufiane, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm
"Study of the Influence of the Armature Number of Phases on the Electromagnetic Torque Quality in PM Vernier VRM"
Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol. 49, N°. 4-5, p. 395-406, 10, url
8EL YOUSSEF Mohamad, CLENET Stéphane, VAN GORP Adrien, BENABOU Abdelkader, FAVEROLLE Pierre, MIPO Jean-Claude
"Improving global ferromagnetic characteristics of laminations by heterogeneous deformation"
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 36, N°. 3, p. 1953-1961, 9, url,
During electrical machine manufacturing, the process may induce plastic mechanical strains, especially in the magnetic core. However, magnetic properties are highly sensitive to the material mechanical state. Thus, the performances of electrical machines, which also rely on the magnetic material properties, are often deteriorated. This paper proposes an approach to reduce the impact of the forming process on the magnetic core performances by creating high localized heterogeneous deformations instead of having a low homogeneous deformation distributed on the whole structure. A NO (non-oriented) FeSi (1.3%) electrical steel (M330-35A) is characterized after uniaxial tensile test. Samples are deformed either in heterogeneous or in homogeneous ways while keeping the same global deformation. Experimental measurements show that, for the same displacement value, the heterogeneous configuration, with localized strain, deteriorates less the global magnetic properties than the homogeneous configuration. These results are supported by a magneto-mechanical modeling approach that predicts accurately the physical behavior of test samples.
9HELBLING Hugo, BENABOU Abdelkader, VAN GORP Adrien, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, EL YOUSSEF Mohamad, BOUGHANMI Walid, LALOY Daniel
"Effect of Industrial Impregnation Process on the Magnetic Properties of Electrical Steels"
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (JMMM), Vol. 531, 8, url,
This paper deals with the experimental investigation of the effect of impregnation process on the normal magnetization curve and iron losses of electrical steels. To address this issue, several laminated toroidal magnetic circuits have been designed to characterize the magnetic properties with the flux metric method. The first configuration considers magnetic circuits wrapped with adhesive tape so that the dielectric resin will be deposited only on the outer surface of the magnetic circuit. In the second configuration, the magnetic circuits are unwrapped, which will allow the resin to diffuse within the inter-laminar spaces of the magnetic circuit. The obtained experimental results show significant effects on the magnetic properties in both cases. However, depending on the considered configuration, the resin diffusion also has an influence on the changes in magnetic properties.
10TORRES GUZMAN Diana Angelica, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, GIRAUD Frédéric, AMBERG Michel
"Design and control of an ultrasonic surface haptic device for longitudinal and transverse mode comparison"
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 331, N°. 113019, 8, url,
The design and closed loop control of a device able to produce both longitudinal mode and transverse mode vibration, at about the same resonance frequency (60 kHz) are presented in this article. The structure uses an array of piezo-ceramics. A dynamic analysis is performed on the obtained modes, and their dynamic lumped parameters are identified. A closed loop control is performed to maintain the desired vibration amplitude in the presence of a finger. Longitudinal and transverse motion cartographies show that the objective of achieving and controlling pure modes independently has been achieved. Using this device, tribological, psychophysical and energetic analyses are carried out. The analyses show that in terms of friction measurements and perception, both modes produce equivalent results. In terms of active power losses, an advantage of the longitudinal mode over the transverse mode is observed due to the interaction with the finger.
11ROKROK Ebrahim, QORIA Taoufik, BRUYERE Antoine, FRANCOIS Bruno, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Transient Stability Assessment and Enhancement of Grid-Forming Converters Embedding Current Reference Saturation as Current Limiting Strategy"
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 8,
This paper deals with the transient stability of a grid-forming converter while embedding a current reference saturation strategy. The novelty of this work consists in investigating the impact of the current reference angle on the transient stability. In case of a balanced voltage sag, analytical formulas to estimate the critical clearing angle (CCA) and critical clearing time (CCT) while considering different values of the current reference angle are derived. It is demonstrated that the choice of this angle is constrained by the ability of the power converter to switch back to the voltage control mode. Based on that, its optimal value that enhances the transient stability and allows a switching from the saturated current control mode to the voltage control mode is calculated. Thereafter, the effectiveness of this optimal choice to guarantee the stability in case of a phase shift caused by a line re-closing event is verified. Time-domain simulations and experimental tests validate the correctness of the presented theoretical approaches.
"Implementation and Validation of a Model Predictive Controller on a Lab-scale Three-Terminal MTDC Grid"
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, p. 1-11, 8, url,
In this paper, a reliable methodology is proposed in order to implement and validate a Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme on an actual Voltage Source Converter (VSC) integrated in a scale-down multi-terminal DC grid. The objective of the investigated MPC controller is to enable AC frequency support among two asynchronous AC areas through a High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) grid, while considering physical constraints, such as maximum and minimum DC voltage. A systematic and accurate implementation strategy is proposed, based mainly on the Hardware In the Loop (HIL) and Power Hardware In the Loop (PHIL), leading to the real-life testing on VSC, controlled by a classical microcontroller. The technical problems during the implementation process, as well as the proposed solutions, are described in detail through this paper. This procedure is deemed valuable to bridge the gap between offline simulation and the actual implementation of such advanced control scheme on experimental test rig.
13WEN Xin, ABBES Dhaker, FRANCOIS Bruno
"Stochastic Optimization for Security-Constrained Day-Ahead Operational Planning Under PV Production Uncertainties: Reduction Analysis of Operating Economic Costs and Carbon Emissions"
ieee access, Vol. 9, p. 97039-97052, ISBN ISSN: 2169-3536, 7, url,
This paper presents a general operational planning framework for controllable generators, one day ahead, under uncertain re-newable energy generation. The effect of photovoltaic (PV) power generation uncertainty on operating decisions is examined by incorporating expected possible uncertainties into a two-stage unit commitment optimization. The planning objective consists in minimizing operating costs and/or equivalent carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Based on distributions of forecasting errors of the net demand, a LOLP-based risk assessment method is proposed to determine an appropriate amount of operating reserve (OR) for each time step of the next day. Then, in a first stage, a deterministic optimization within a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) method generates the unit commitment of controllable generators with the day-ahead PV and load demand prediction and the prescribed OR requirement. In a second stage, possible future forecasting uncertainties are considered. Hence, a stochastic operational planning is optimized in order to commit enough flexible generators to handle unexpected deviations from predic-tions. The proposed methodology is implemented for a local energy community. Results regarding the available operating reserve, operating costs and CO2 emissions are established and compared. About 15% of economic operating costs and environmental costs are saved, compared to a deterministic generation planning while ensuring the targeted security level.
14MILLAN MIRABAL Leysmir, MESSAL Oualid, BENABOU Abdelkader, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CHEVALLIER Loïc, KORECKI Julien, ROGER Jean-Yves, DUCREUX Jean-Pierre
"Iron Loss Modeling of Grain Oriented Electrical Steels in FEM Simulation Environment"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 7, url,
Regularly used in power transformers, grain-oriented (GO) steels are also usually chosen for the manufacturing of the stator cores of hydro and turbo-generators. These steels are renowned for their high magnetic performances in the rolling direction (high permeability and low magnetic losses). Nevertheless, in a turbo-generator where GO steels are employed to reduce the size of the stator core, the magnetic flux flows through several successive directions within the plane of the steel. So, the anisotropic behavior of the GO steel has to be considered in the design step of the related devices in order to improve their energy efficiency as well as their diagnosis based on modeling. In this paper, an anisotropic phenomenological iron loss model, quite recently developed, has been studied and successfully implemented in a finite element method (FEM) simulation environment. The implementation has been validated against experimental data achieved on an industrial conventional GO grade typically used in turbogenerators. The results show a good agreement of the computational results with the experiments for both quasi-static and dynamic regimes.
"Alternating and Rotational Loss Prediction Accuracy of Vector Jiles-Atherton Model"
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (JMMM), Vol. 527, 6, url,
In this paper, the vector extension of the Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model is modified to predict both alternating and rotational field strength variations observed in a nonoriented silicon steel sheet. The model parameters are changed to be functions of the magnitude and direction of flux density, and the anhysteretic magnetic characteristics are identified from several unidirectional alternating measurements. We demonstrate that the modified vector Jiles-Atherton model can predict both alternating and rotational field strength variations with better accuracy than the “basic” approach.
16JAMIL Meryeme, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane, SHIHAB Sylvain, LE BELLU ARBENZ Laure, MIPO Jean-Claude
"Magnetic ageing investigation of bulk low-carbon silicon steel"
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (JMMM), Vol. 527, 6, url,
In this paper, the magnetic ageing of a bulk forged non-annealed magnetic core, used in claw pole synchronous machine, is investigated. The study is carried out by characterizing the material properties of two groups of samples subjected to a thermal ageing at 180 °C that corresponds to the maximum operating temperature of the claw pole rotor. The investigated characteristics are the electrical conductivity, the magnetic properties, the material microstructure and the Vickers hardness. They were characterized along with the ageing time. The results show that, during the thermal ageing, the hysteresis losses and the Vickers hardness have been affected by the magnetic ageing, whereas the electric conductivity and the normal B-H curve have not been modified. The microstructure analyses showed that carbides precipitates were the main cause behind the magnetic ageing. Moreover, the comparison between the results of two groups of samples revealed the possibility that the magnetic ageing of the material could have started during the manufacturing process of the magnetic core.
17M'ZALI Nabil, HENNERON Thomas, BENABOU Abdelkader, MARTIN Floran, BELAHCEN Anouar
"Finite Element Analysis of the Magneto-mechanical Coupling Due to Punching Process in Electrical Steel Sheet"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 57, N°. 6, 6, url
18ZHAO Benteng, GONG Jinlin, TONG Tao, XU Y, SEMAIL Eric, NGUYEN Ngac Ky, GILLON Frédéric
"A Novel Five Phase Fractional Slot Concentrated Winding with Low Space Harmonic Contents"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 6, p. 1-5, 6, url,
In this paper, a novel five-phase fractional-slot concentrated winding (FSCW) with 20-slot/22-pole is presented. It benefits not only the advantages of conventional FSCW, but also weak space harmonics of magnetomotive force (mmf). The winding allows eliminating the 1st sub-order harmonic. The new layout of the winding topology is obtained by a combination of stator shift technique of the winding in the slots with a special coupling of the windings (star-pentagon), using winding function theory. The high performances of the new winding layout are validated using finite element method (FEM). Compared to the conventional winding, the winding factor and the THD of mmf are improved by 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. With the same injection of current density, the average output torque is increased by 1% and the torque ripple is decreased by 60%. The eddy current losses in the PMs at rated speed (600 rpm) and 2100 rpm speed are improved by 67% and 56%, respectively.
19TANG Zuqi, LOU Suyang, BENABOU Abdelkader, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, KORECKI Julien, MIPO Jean-Claude
"Guaranteed Quantity of Interest Error Estimate Based on Equilibrated Flux Reconstruction"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 57, N°. 6, 6, url,
The quality of a local physical quantity obtained by the numerical method such as the finite element method (FEM) attracts more and more attention in computational electromagnetism. Inspired by the idea of goal-oriented error estimate given for the Laplace problem, this work is devoted to a guaranteed a posteriori error estimate adapted for the quantity of interest (QOI) linked to magnetostatic problems, in particular, to the value of the magnetic flux density. The development is principally based on an equilibrated flux construction, which ensures fully computable estimators without any unknown constant. The main steps of the mathematical development are given in detail with the physical interpretation. An academic example using an analytical solution is considered to illustrate the performance of the approach, and a discussion about different aspects related to the practical point of view is proposed.
20ZHANG Jian, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, BENABOU Abdelkader, LE MENACH Yvonnick
"Detection of magnetization loss in a PMSM with Hilbert Huang transform applied to non-invasive search coil voltage"
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 184, 6, url,
This paper presents a novel method for demagnetization fault detection in permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM). Demagnetization fault is a common problem existing in PMSM which deteriorates the machine performance and can lead to serious subsequential machine damages. Unlike the most popular method based on the analysis of the machine currents for detecting this type of fault, the approach proposed in this paper analyzes the voltage signal of a non-invasive search coil by means of Hilbert Huang transform. Simulations are carried out with a two dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) for different demagnetization levels to test the capability of the proposed method to detect PM demagnetization faults.
21ZHANG Wenjing, XU Yanliang, SUN Mingxin
"Design of a Novel Claw Pole Transverse Flux Permanent Magnet Motor Based on Hybrid Stator Core"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 57, N°. 6, 6
22ALMAKSOUR Khaled, KRAIEM Youssef, KOUASSI N'guessan, NAVARRO Nicolas, FRANCOIS Bruno, LETROUVE Tony, SAUDEMONT Christophe, TAUNAY Lionel, ROBYNS Benoît
"Comparison of dynamic models for a DC railway electrical network including an AC/DC bi-directional power station"
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 184, p. 244-266, 6, url,
To face environmental issues, SNCF, the French railway, has chosen to improve the energy efficiency of its electrical power system by investigating solutions for regenerative braking. With the contribution of Railenium, a research and test center in railway activities, they aim to recover the braking energy by setting up a reversible inverter in a DC substation “Masséna”. The issue is to test, implement and compare various control solutions to increase the energy efficiency with minimum impacts on the railway operation. In this paper, a simulation model for studying a reversible power substation is addressed by considering AC and DC equivalent electrical sources. The proposed model provides a reliable tool for analyzing the behavior of the railway electrical network during specially braking mode. In order to validate this model, its simulation results are compared with the ones obtained from Esmeralda, the SNCF professional software. A first configuration is led without the inverter and gives certified Esmeralda results and validates the proposed model despite some gaps in powers and voltages due to differences in input data and models. A second comparison with inverter is presented to highlight the main difference between the proposed model and Esmeralda. In addition, laboratory experimental activities are put forward to investigate the proposed model by using power-hardware-in-the-loop simulations. Finally, a simulation test under MATLAB software with fifty train’s traffic is presented to estimate the energy saving thanks to the installed inverter. For this latter case study, the system sent back to the national AC grid around 6.9% of the total energy consumed by all trains.
23UYGUN Emre, HECQUET Michel, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DEPERNET Daniel, LANFRANCHI Vincent, BRUNO Serge, TOLLANCE Thierry
"Influence of the load angle on magnetic radial forces and torque ripple of a low power permanent magnet synchronous machine"
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 184, p. 153-164, ISBN 0378-4754, 6, url,
This paper shows the influence of the shift phase angle ψ between phase currents and back-electromotive forces on magnetic radial forces and torque ripple for a specific low power permanent magnet synchronous machine. This influence is firstly demonstrated through analytical development considering only the first harmonic values. Then, magnetic pressure harmonics versus space and frequency as well as torque ripple are evaluated on the studied motor for different angles using finite element approach. The aim is to establish a good compromise between consumed current, torque and radial force harmonics at the origin of the electromagnetic noise. Experimental measurements with a sensorless field-oriented control are detailed.
24DUPUY Corinne, BENABOU Abdelkader, SHIHAB Sylvain, MESSAL Oualid, CLENET Stéphane, PEYRE Patrice
"Influence of laser powder bed fusion process conditions and resulting microstructures on the electromagnetic properties of a 16MnCr5 steel"
Additive Manufacturing, Vol. Volume 41, p. 101945, 5, url,
16MnCr5 steel parts were additively manufactured by laser powder bed fusion in order to investigate the effect of microstructure on electromagnetic properties. As process parameters have a direct impact on the obtained microstructure, different conditions were used to manufacture samples on which magnetic and electrical tests were conducted. The obtained results were presented and discussed in terms of density, microstructure and electromagnetic properties. Finally, correlations have been demonstrated between the microstructure and the electromagnetic performances. Lower magnetic and electric properties were obtained with the higher porosity rates at low volume energy density. The microstructural effects were evidenced, through a decrease in magnetic properties with grain orientation, and an improvement with stress relief annealing.
"Multistage radial flow pump-turbine for compressed air energy storage: experimental analysis and modeling"
Applied Energy, Vol. 289, 5, url,
The increasing development of storage systems connected to electrical networks is stimulated by network management issues related to recent energetic landscape evolutions such as the increasing integration of renewable production sources. Hydro-pneumatic systems seem to offer a clean and cheap energy storage solution among the set of existing storage techniques. The present study analyses an air–water direct contact accumulation system, in closed cycle, using a rotodynamic reversible pump/turbine. The use of a unique energy conversion machine and easy-to-recycle materials could lead to cost-effective, environmentally friendly storage technique with long service life. The paper is focused on the experimental implementation and analysis of the system in a Lab environment, and the modeling of its multi-physic dynamic behavior. To deal with the variable operating conditions of the system, two different real time control strategies of the hydraulic machine were successfully tested. Finally, the global system efficiency is discussed. The efficiency control strategy was achieved with a 31% round trip efficiency and the power control strategy lead to 5% and 23% precision on exchanged power in charge and discharge modes respectively. The multi-physic dynamic model led to a 4% error of turbine mode acceleration prediction showing the interest of such a modeling method for such transient systems.
26BEKIR Wissem, MESSAL Oualid, BENABOU Abdelkader
"Permanent Magnet Non-linear Demagnetization Model for FEM Simulation Environment"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 5,
Robustness and reliability of modern synchronous motors require an accurate design of the permanent magnets (PM) while accounting for the motor operating conditions (demagnetizing field, temperature). In this paper, the important attribute of a PM non-linear demagnetization model within a finite element method (FEM) simulation environment is clearly emphasized. To do so, starting from experimental measurement achieved on a NdFeB PM, a toolbox baptized “PM-Demag” has been developed. This toolbox manages the PM history and updates the PM B(H) characteristics depending on the temperature and the PM working point. Finally, a relatively straightforward coupling is implemented with a FEM software and applied to a simple study case. Results show local magnetization loss in the PM due to the combination of both the temperature and the demagnetizing field.
"Human low-threshold mechanoafferent responses to pure changes in friction controlled using an ultrasonic haptic device"
Scientific Reports, Vol. 11, N°. 1, ISBN 10.1038/s41598-021-90533-8, 5,
The forces that are developed when manipulating objects generate sensory cues that inform the central nervous system about the qualities of the object's surface and the status of the hand/object interaction. Afferent responses to frictional transients or slips have been studied in the context of lifting/holding tasks. Here, we used microneurography and an innovative tactile stimulator, the Stimtac, to modulate both the friction level of a surface, without changing the surface or adding a lubricant, and, to generate the frictional transients in a pure and net fashion. In three protocols, we manipulated: the frictional transients, the friction levels, the rise times, the alternation of phases of decrease or increase in friction to emulate grating-like stimuli. Afferent responses were recorded in 2 FAIs, 1 FAII, 2 SAIs and 3 SAIIs from the median nerve of human participants. Independently of the unit type, we observed that: single spikes were generated time-locked to the frictional transients, and that reducing the friction level reduced the number of spikes during the stable phase of the stimulation. Our results suggest that those frictional cues are encoded in all the unit types and emphasize the possibility to use the Stimtac device to control mechanoreceptor firing with high temporal precision.
28WEN Xin, ABBES Dhaker, FRANCOIS Bruno
"Modelling of Photovoltaic Power Uncertainties for Impact Analysis on Generation Scheduling and Cost of an Urban Micro Grid"
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 183, p. 116-128, 5, url,
Abstract In electrical systems, the main objective is to satisfy the load demand at the least cost without having imbalance between generation and consumption. Thus, the uncertainty of photovoltaic (PV) power production must be considered in generation planning. In this paper, the optimal generation scheduling in an urban microgrid is made by taking in consideration operating reserve (OR) provision and under stochastic characteristics of PV power prediction. By considering a prescribed risk level of unbalancing, a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm sets the operational planning of conventional generators, so that the operational cost and available operating reserve can be calculated. Then, the effect of PV power uncertainty into the unit commitment is analysed by considering PV forecast intervals with a 95 % confidence level. The unit commitment is then recalculated with new generator set points and the same criteria. Finally, variations of the targeted minimized costs and obtained OR is analysed according to the considered uncertainty.
"Advanced Model of Hybrid Energy Storage System Integrating Lithium-ion Battery and Supercapacitor For Electric Vehicle Applications"
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 5, url,
One of the main technological stumbling blocks in the field of environmentally friendly vehicles is related to the energy storage system. It is in this regard that car manufacturers are mobilizing to improve battery technologies and to accurately predict their behavior. The work proposed in this paper deals with the advanced electro-thermal modeling of a hybrid energy storage system integrating Lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The objective is to allow the aging aspects of the components of this system to be taken into account. The development of a model including the electro-thermal behaviors makes it possible to evaluate the progressive degradation of the performance of the hybrid energy storage system. The characterization of both components constituting the hybrid system is carried out via a hybrid Particle Swarm–Nelder–Mead (PSO–NM) optimization algorithm using the experimental data of an urban electric vehicle. The obtained results show the good performance of the developed model and confirm the feasibility of our approach. The use of the PSO–NM optimization algorithm facilitated the identification of the parameters of the developed model with high efficiency, as the error observed is less than 3%. The advanced model associated with an adapted sizing method can be used in many cases to compare energy management strategies in electric vehicle applications.
30STEPHANT Matthieu, ABBES Dhaker, HASSAM-OUARI Kahina, LABRUNIE Antoine, ROBYNS Benoît
"Distributed optimization of energy profiles to improve photovoltaic self-consumption on a local energy community"
Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, Vol. 108, 4, url,
The development of local energy communities and collective self-consumption framework at a large scale requires new control methods that take into account users preferences. This article presents a model of such a community, with diverse actors (photovoltaic generators, electric vehicles, storage system and tertiary buildings). Game theory is used to model the preferences of each user and to build a mathematical framework where each user optimizes individually his power profile according to these preferences. An ADMM distributed algorithm (Alternating Direction of Method of Multipliers) is employed for practical implementation. Thus, a central agent is no longer needed to reach the system equilibrium, in which all users are satisfied while ensuring that the local energy community does not import more power from the grid than allowed. The simulations performed on real data for different scenarios representing diverse users behaviors show that the developed approach converges to a stable state, and leads to a maximization of local energy exchanges.
31LI Ke, EVANS Paul, JOHNSON Mark, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir
"A GaN-HEMT Compact Model Including Dynamic RDSon Effect for Power Electronics Converters"
MDPI Energies, Vol. 14, N°. 8, p. 17, ISBN 1996-1073, 4, url,
In order to model GaN-HEMT switching transients and determine power losses, a compact model including dynamic RDSon effect is proposed herein. The model includes mathematical equations to represent device static and capacitance-voltage characteristics, and a behavioural voltage source, which includes multiple RC units to represent different time constants for trapping and detrapping effect from 100 ns to 100 s range. All the required parameters in the model can be obtained by fitting method using a datasheet or experimental characterisation results. The model is then implemented into our developed virtual prototyping software, where the device compact model is co-simulated with a parasitic inductance physical model to obtain the switching waveform. As model order reduction is applied in our software to resolve physical model, the device switching current and voltage waveform can be obtained in the range of minutes. By comparison with experimental measurements, the model is validated to accurately represent device switching transients as well as their spectrum in frequency domain until 100 MHz. In terms of dynamic RDSon value, the mismatch between the model and experimental results is within 10% under different power converter operation conditions in terms of switching frequencies and duty cycles, so designers can use this model to accurately obtain GaN-HEMT power losses due to trapping and detrapping effects for power electronics converters
32CLENET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas, KORECKI Julien
"Sensor placement for field reconstruction in rotating electrical machines"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 4
"Virtual current vectors-based method for inverter open-switch and open-phase faults diagnosis in multiphase PMSM drive"
IET Electric Power Applications, p. 1-11, 4, url,
This paper presents a diagnostic method of inverter open-switch and open-phase faults in multiphase PMSM drives. Adequate variables called “Virtual Current Vectors (VCVn)” are firstly defined. The projection of the zero-sequence current component (ZSCC) on these variables was used to define two simple fault indices. High sensitivity to fault is thus induced but with a good robustness to transient states and variation of machine parameters. The mathematical development of the proposed method is provided and supported by experimental tests conducted on two prototypes of multiphase machines in the laboratory, sinusoidal and bi-harmonic PMSMs. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed method and its capability to detect the single and multiple open-switches and open-phase faults in the electric drive.
34DURILLON Benoit, SALOMEZ Florentin, DAVIGNY Arnaud, KAZMIERZCAK Sabine, BARRY Hervé, SAUDEMONT Christophe, ROBYNS Benoît
"Consumers' Sensitivities and Preferences Modelling and Integration in a Decentralized Two Levels Energy Supervisor"
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 183, p. 142-157, 4
35PACE Loris, IDIR Nadir, DUQUESNE Thierry, DEJAEGER Jean-Claude
"Parasitic Loop Inductances Reduction in the PCB Layout in GaN-Based Power Converters Using S-Parameters and EM Simulations"
Energies - MDPI, Vol. 14, N°. 5, p. 17, ISBN ISSN 1996-1073, 3, url,
Due to the high switching speed of Gallium Nitride (GaN) transistors, parasitic inductances have significant impacts on power losses and electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in GaN-based power converters. Thus, the proper design of high-frequency converters in a simulation tool requires accurate electromagnetic (EM) modeling of the commutation loops. This work proposes an EM modeling of the parasitic inductance of a GaN-based commutation cell on a printed circuit board
(PCB) using Advanced Design System (ADS®) software. Two different PCB designs of the commutation loop, lateral (single-sided) and vertical (double-sided) are characterized in terms of parasitic inductance contribution. An experimental approach based on S-parameters, the Cold FET technique and a specific calibration procedure is developed to obtain reference values for comparison with the proposed models. First, lateral and vertical PCB loop inductances are extracted. Then, the whole
commutation loop inductances including the packaging of the GaN transistors are determined by developing an EM model of the device’s internal parasitic. The switching waveforms of the GaN transistors in a 1 MHz DC/DC converter are given for the different commutation loop designs.
Finally, a discussion is proposed on the presented results and the development of advanced tools for high-frequency GaN-based power electronics design.
36HEATH Theodor, BARNES Mike, JUDGE Paul D., CHAFFEY Geraint, CLEMOW Phil, GREEN Tim C., GREEN Peter R., WYLIE James, KONSTANTINOU Georgios, CEBALLOS Salvador, POU Josep, BELHAOUANE Moez, ZHANG Haibo, GUILLAUD Xavier, ANDREWS Jack
"Cascaded-and Modular-Multilevel Converter Laboratory Test System Options: A Review"
IEEE Access, Vol. 9, p. 44718-44737, 3, url,
The increasing importance of cascaded multilevel converters (CMCs), and the sub-category of modular multilevel converters (MMCs), is illustrated by their wide use in high voltage DC connections and in static compensators. Research is being undertaken into the use of these complex pieces of hardware and software for a variety of grid support services, on top of fundamental frequency power injection, requiring improved control for non-traditional duties. To validate these results, small-scale laboratory hardware prototypes are often required. Such systems have been built by many research teams around the globe and are also increasingly commercially available. Few publications go into detail on the construction options for
prototype CMCs, and there is a lack of information on both design considerations and lessons learned from the build process, which will hinder research and the best application of these important units. This paper reviews options, gives key examples from leading research teams, and summarizes knowledge gained in the development of test rigs to clarify design considerations when constructing laboratory-scale CMCs.
37MONTIER Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane, GOURSAUD Benjamin
"Model Order Reduction applied to a linear Finite Element model of a squirrel cage induction machine based on POD approach"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 3
38MESBAHI Tedjani, ROCÍO BendalaSugrañes, BAKRI Reda, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick
"Coupled electro-thermal modeling of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicle application"
Journal of Energy Storage, Vol. 35, 3,
The paper deals with electro-thermal modeling lithium-ion batteries. The model computes losses distrubution distribution to allow an accurate temperature distribution. The electrical model is updated through the mean temperature of the battery to insure an accurate estimation of losses at any temperature.
The obtained results show that the proposed model is able to simulate the dynamic interaction between the electric and the thermal battery behavior, and high performance for the cell surface temperature prediction.
39MARAULT Jérôme, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, GILLON Frédéric, HECQUET Michel
"Efficient Approach Based on Equivalent Electric Circuit Model to Determine Rotor Bar Currents of Squirrel Cage Induction Machines"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2
40GONG Ruohan, TANG Zuqi
"Training Sample Selection Strategy applied to CNN in Magneto-Thermal coupled Analysis"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2, url,
Deep learning (DL) has attracted more and more attention in computational electromagnetism. Particularly, the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is one of the most popular learning models in DL due to its excellent capacity for feature extraction and convergence. The efficiency of CNN mainly depends on how many training samples are needed to effectively converge the network. The sample preparation process often involves a lot of numerical computations, which can be very expensive and time-consuming. In this paper, based on the traditional DL network training procedure, two different approaches, namely adding smart training samples and reference samples, are proposed to help the DL network converge. The smart sample selection is based on a greedy algorithm, which can be applied for both training and reference samples. The influences of these two approaches on the CNN training process are investigated by an example of the coupled magneto-thermal computation applied to a transformer. Numerical results show that the two proposed approaches can significantly help the network to converge and improve the efficiency of the DL model.
41KALOUN Adham, BRISSET Stéphane, OGIER Maxime, AHMED Mariam, VINCENT Robin
"Comparison of Cycle Reduction and Model Reduction Strategies for the Design Optimization of Hybrid Powertrains on Driving Cycles"
Energies, Vol. 14, N°. 4, p. 948, 2, url,
Decision-making is a crucial and difficult step in the design process of complex systems such as the hybrid powertrain. Finding an optimal solution requires the system feedback. This can be, depending on the granularity of the models at the component level, highly time-consuming. This is even more true when the system’s performance is determined by its control. In fact, various possibilities can be selected to deliver the required torque to the wheels during a driving cycle. In this work, two different design strategies are proposed to minimize the fuel consumption and the cost of the hybrid powertrain. Both strategies adopt the iterative framework which allows for the separation of the powertrain design problem and its control while leading to system optimality. The first approach is based on model reduction, while the second approach relies on improved cycle reduction techniques. They are then applied to a parallel hybrid vehicle case study, leading to important cost reduction in reasonable delays and are compared using different metrics.
42TORRES GUZMAN Diana Angelica, KACI Anis, GIRAUD Frédéric, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, AMBERG Michel, CLENET Stéphane, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty
"PCA Model of Fundamental Acoustic Finger Force for Out-of-Plane Ultrasonic Vibration and its Correlation with Friction Reduction"
IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 2,
When a finger touches an ultrasonic vibrating plate, a non-sinusoidal contact force is produced. This force is called acoustic finger force. In a setup where closed-loop control is performed on the vibration amplitude, a component of the acoustic finger force can be measured at the fundamental vibration frequency of the plate. This calculation is obtained from the measurement of the variation of the controller voltage between the no-load case and when a finger is present. This calculation is made for a group of twelve participants. From these results a PCA (Principal Component Analysis) model is created. This model permits estimation of the acoustic finger force response of a participant at any vibration amplitude, based on a one or two point measurement. Finally, a linear relation between the PCA coefficients and the friction reduction is proposed. The objective of this relation would be to ultimately provide the means to create an amplitude reference calibration based on the desired friction reduction level, and thus be able to produce a standardized tactile feedback for each user, despite the biomechanical differences in finger pad properties between subjects.
43GUO Ze, WANG Shuhong, TANG Zuqi, REN Zhuoxiang
"Fast Time-domain Solution of Dynamic Electromagnetic Problems based on Sinc Interpolation"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2, url,
In time domain electromagnetic field problems that have a fast time response with sharp field change or need a long time transient process to get the steady-state solution, a large number of time step iterations are required using the classical time-stepping method. A reduced model based on Sinc interpolation is proposed in this work. The accuracy of the proposed method does not depend on the traditional time-domain discretization step but only the number of sampling points. Two numerical examples, namely an electro-quasistatic problem and a field-circuit coupled problem, are considered to illustrate the accuracy and performance of the proposed method. It is shown that only a few pre-computed samplings are sufficient to obtain a good performance in comparing with the traditional time-stepping method.
44ZHANG Haibo, BELHAOUANE Moez, COLAS Frédéric, KADRI Riad, GRUSON François, GUILLAUD Xavier
"On Comprehensive Description and Analysis of MMC Control Design: Simulation and Experimental Study"
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 36, N°. 1, p. 244 - 253, 2, url,
This paper presents an evolution of control systems of Modular Multilevel Converters (MMCs) focusing on the internal voltages and currents dynamics. MMCs have passive components that create extra dynamics compared to conventional VSCs. Some control schemes that do not consider these internal dynamics may still stabilize the system asymptotically thanks to the linearisation in the modulation step. However these control schemes are less robust because they are prone to poor damped oscillations on the dc side of the converter. The MMC circuit and energy relationships are presented in this paper. Along with a gradual development of the energy based control, the important roles of each internal dynamics are clearly demonstrated. Experimental results are presented to show the impacts of the linearisation in the modulation step on the system behaviour.
45CHAFI Amar, IDIR Nadir, VIDET Arnaud, HASSAN Maher
"Design method of PCB inductors for high-frequency GaN converters"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 36, N°. 1, p. 805 - 814, 1, url,
The new power GaN transistors allow to increase the operating frequency of converters to megahertz range, thanks to their low switching time that is of a few nanoseconds or less. This permits to reduce the values and the volume of the passive components, and enhance the power density of power converters. However, inductors needed for energy storage still take a large volume in converters compared with the others components, because of their weak energy density. Further, high frequency operation require low-losses magnetic materials. In this paper, a design method of PCB inductors is proposed. A flexible ferrite sheet is used to enhance the inductance value and ease the realization of custom-shape devices. The design method of the inductor is based on the optimization of the inductor volume taking into account thermal issues of the magnetic sheets. Also a simulation method is proposed to calculate the equivalent stray capacitance of the inductors. The proposed method provides a losses-volume trade-off that helps designers to optimize the inductor for their application.
46BEYE Mamadou Lamine, WICKRAMASINGHE Thilini, MOGNIOTTE Jean-François, PHUNG Luong Viêt, IDIR Nadir, HASSAN Maher, ALLARD Bruno
"Active gate driver and management of the switching speed of GaN transistors during turn-on and turn-off"
MDPI, Journal electronics, Vol. 10, p. 14, ISBN ISSN 2079-9292, 1, url,
The paper investigates the management of drain voltage and current slew rates (i.e., dv/dt and di/dt) of high-speed GaN-based power switches during the transitions. An active gate voltage control (AGVC) is considered for improving the safe operation of a switching cell. In an application of open-loop AGVC, the switching speeds vary significantly with the operating point of the GaN HEMT on either or both current and temperature. A closed-loop AGVC is proposed to operate the switches at a constant speed over different operating points. In order to evaluate the reduction in the electromagnetic disturbances, the common mode currents in the system were compared using the active and a standard gate voltage control (SGVC). The closed-loop analysis carried out in this paper has shown that discrete component-based design can introduce limitations to fully resolve the problem of high switching speeds. To ensure effective control of the switching operations, a response time fewer than 10 ns is required for this uncomplex closed-loop technique despite an increase in switching losses.
47CHENG Qiwen, ZOU Jun, CLENET Stéphane
"A Novel and General Approach for Solving the ion-flow Field Problem by a regularization technique"
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISBN 10.1109/TPWRD.2020.3048969, 1,
In order to have a better convergence and accuracy for solving the ion-flow field problem, a novel and general numerical approach is proposed. In the past, the framework of the traditional mesh based method has a dilemma that the Kapzov boundary condition can be imposed properly, and it must have two loops: the “well-posed” problem is solved in the inner loop and the secant based method is applied to impose the Kapzov assumption in the outer loop. In contrast, the proposed method solves the ion flow field problem from the perspective of the inverse problem. The original boundary value problem is transformed into a regularized optimization problem based on the priori information about the smooth ion distribution on the conductors. The objective function is separated into two parts and minimized by the alternating direction iterative method. In contrast to the traditional methods, the proposed method has removed the redundant iterations and the contentious simplifications. Numerical experiments show that the performance of the proposed method is superior to the traditional method and the results obtained by the proposed method agree better with the physical law than the traditional method.
48LI Kaibo, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CUI Shumei, CHENG Yuan
"A Hybrid Modular Cascade Machines System for Electric Vehicles using Induction Machine and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 70, N°. 1, p. 273-281, 1,
DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2020.3047219
"Performance analysis of a self-excited induction generator mathematical dynamic model with magnetic saturation, cross saturation effect and iron losses"
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Vol. 7, N°. 4, p. 527-538, 12
2BROURI Adil, KADI Laila, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, OUANNOU Abdelmalek, BOUCHNAIF Jamal
"Modelling and identification of switched reluctance machine inductance"
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 12, url
3EL BECHARI Reda, BRISSET Stéphane, CLENET Stéphane, GUYOMARCH Frédéric, MIPO Jean-Claude
"Branch and Bound Algorithm Based on Prediction Error of Metamodel for Computational Electromagnetics"
MDPI Energies, Vol. 13, N°. 24, p. 6749, 12, url,
Metamodels proved to be a very efficient strategy for optimizing expensive black-box models, e.g., Finite Element simulation for electromagnetic devices. It enables the reduction of the computational burden for optimization purposes. However, the conventional approach of using metamodels presents limitations such as the cost of metamodel fitting and infill criteria problem-solving. This paper proposes a new algorithm that combines metamodels with a branch and bound (B&B) strategy. However, the efficiency of the B&B algorithm relies on the estimation of the bounds; therefore, we investigated the prediction error given by metamodels to predict the bounds. This combination leads to high fidelity global solutions. We propose a comparison protocol to assess the approach’s performances with respect to those of other algorithms of different categories. Then, two electromagnetic optimization benchmarks are treated. This paper gives practical insights into algorithms that can be used when optimizing electromagnetic devices.
4FU Dangshan, GONG Jinlin, XU Yanliang, GILLON Frédéric, BRACIKOWSKI Nicolas
"Coupled Circuit and Magnetic Model for a Transverse Flux Permanent Magnet Linear Motor"
IEEE Access, Vol. 8, p. pp. 159274-159283, 12,
D. Fu, J. Gong, Y. Xu, F. Gillon and N. Bracikowski, "Coupled Circuit and Magnetic Model for a Transverse Flux Permanent Magnet Linear Motor," in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 159274-159283, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3020258.
Abstract: In this paper, a strong coupling between magnetic and electric phenomena is provided allowing to have an accurate and high-speed coupled model. A coupled circuit and magnetic model for an E-core transverse flux permanent magnet linear motor (TFPMLM) is proposed, which has an advantage linked to reducing time computing more than ten times when compared to 3-D finite-element model (FEM). Firstly, a multi-plane flexible-mesh nonlinear equivalent magnetic network (EMN) model is proposed to improve the computation efficiency as well as the high precision of the magnetic model. And a new method to define the converged iterative process is presented to further decrease the computing time. Secondly, the magnetic circuit and electric circuit are normalized into a solution matrix by introducing controlled sources and discretization methods which forms the coupled model. Then, the magnetic flux in the magnetic circuits and the current in the electric circuits are obtained simultaneously for each time step. The characteristics such as the air-gap flux density distribution, output thrust force waveforms and the phase currents are analyzed by the proposed coupled model. The modeling approach is approved by comparison with the 3-D FEM model. Finally, the proposed model is validated through the experimental setup with the machine prototype.
keywords: {couplings;finite element analysis;iterative methods;linear motors;magnetic circuits;magnetic flux;permanent magnet motors;iterative process;computation efficiency;EMN model;TFPMLM;coupling;flexible-mesh nonlinear equivalent magnetic network model;3-D finite-element model;E-core transverse flux permanent magnet linear motor;high-speed coupled model;electric phenomena;magnetic phenomena;coupled circuit;electric circuit;magnetic circuit;Integrated circuit modeling;Magnetic circuits;Magnetic flux;Atmospheric modeling;Computational modeling;Permanent magnet motors;Solid modeling;Coupled model;electric circuit;equivalent magnetic network (EMN);linear motor;transverse flux},
URL: https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.ressources-electroniques.univ-lille.fr/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=9180311&isnumber=8948470
"Non-linear Switched Model for Accurate Voltage Estimation and Power Flow Analysis of DC Railway Systems"
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, Vol. 10, N°. 4, p. 425-435, 12
6AYDOUN Racha, PARENT Guillaume, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, LECOINTE Jean-Philippe
"Performance comparison of axial-flux switched reluctance machines with non-oriented and grain-oriented electrical steel rotors"
Open Physics, Vol. 18, N°. 1, 12
7PAM Abdoulaye, BOUSCAYROL Alain, FIANI Philippe, FAVAL Fabien
"Comparison of different models for energy management strategy design of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle: impact of the rotating masses"
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, 12,
Simulation is a key step during the development of energy management strategies (EMSs) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Moreover, optimal algorithms such as dynamic programming (DP) are used off‐line to define a benchmark for real‐time EMSs. However, several assumptions are made on the model to determine the appropriate energy management of an HEV. The rotating masses of the mechanical transmission, which are related to the vehicle dynamics, are often neglected for EMS development. In this study, different models for the EMS design of a parallel HEV are compared. An EMS based on the dynamical model that considers the rotating masses is used as a benchmark. A static model considering only the static mass of the vehicle is also studied. Intermediate models, such as an average gear model and an average mass model, are also considered. Simulations are performed using different driving cycles. The comparisons are based on the fuel consumption and also the computation time resulting from EMSs derived from the different models. Globally, the static model leads to an average error up to 20% on the energy consumption in comparison with the dynamical model. The average mass model leads to an error less than 1%. For real‐time simulations, the average mass model allows to reduce the computation time by a factor of 10 in comparison with the dynamical model.
"Comparison of an optimized electrical variable transmission with the Toyota Hybrid System"
Applied Energy, Vol. 278, p. 115616, 11, url,
This paper discusses the comparison of two series–parallel hybrid electrical vehicles. The first one is based on the Toyota hybrid system, while the second one is equipped with an electrical variable transmission. The problem with previous comparisons between these two transmissions is the lack of validated data used to support the comparison as well as a comprehensive study on the sizing of the electrical variable transmission for a given vehicle and load cycle. To tackle these issues, a validated model of an electrical variable transmission is used in combination with validated scaling laws to assess design changes. This scalable model is used to determine the optimal design and the impact of sizing on the fuel consumption of the vehicle. To exclude the impact of the chosen control methodology, dynamic programming has been used. This technique is not only used to optimize the operating points of the internal combustion engine, but also to find the optimal DC-bus voltage in order to optimize the system level efficiency. The comparison is performed for multiple driving cycles that all show the added value of the electrical variable transmission based hybrid electrical vehicle. On average, over the different driving cycles, a reduction in fuel consumption of 4.75% is achieved while using an electrical variable transmission.
9MARAULT Jérôme, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, GILLON Frédéric, HECQUET Michel
"Use of current sheet coupled to an analytical tool to analyze by FEM the harmonic content of armature winding distributions"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), 11
10UYGUN Emre, HECQUET Michel, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DEPERNET Daniel, LANFRANCHI Vincent, BRUNO Serge, TOLLANCE Thierry
"Impact of the load angle on magnetic radial pressure and torque ripple of a low power PMSM with trapezoidal control"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 39, N°. 5, p. 1255-1270, ISBN 0332-1649, 11, url,
This paper deals with the study of the influence of the phase shift between currents and back-electromotive forces (back-EMF) on torque ripple and radial magnetic forces for a low power synchronous machine supplied with 120 degrees square-wave currents. This paper aims to establish a good compromise between efficiency, harmonics of torque and harmonics of radial forces at the origin of the electromagnetic noise.

Based on a finite element approach, torque and magnetic pressure harmonics versus space and frequency are evaluated for different angle values. The evolutions of the different harmonics against the load angle are analyzed and compared to those of experimental measurements.

Depending on the load torque, field-weakening or field-boosting can be used to reduce current harmonics contributing the most to the radial magnetic forces responsible for the noise. Besides, a compromise can be found to avoid deteriorating too much the performances of the machine, thus being suitable with an industrial application.

Research limitations/implications
This study concerns low power permanent magnet synchronous machines with concentrated windings and driven with a trapezoidal control, while having sinusoidal back-EMF.

The use of a simple mean and suitable with a large-scale manufacturing industry to reduce the identified electromagnetic-borne noise of a specific electric drive makes the originality.
"Optimal Energy Storage System-Based Virtual Inertia Placement: A Frequency Stability Point of View »"
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 35, N°. 6, p. 4824 - 4835, 11,
In this paper, the problem of optimal placement of virtual inertia is considered as a techno-economic problem from a frequency stability point of view. First, a data driven-based equivalent model of battery energy storage systems, as seen from the electrical system, is proposed. This experimentally validated model takes advantage of the energy storage system special attributes to contribute to inertial response enhancement, via the virtual inertia concept. Then, a new framework is proposed, which considers the battery storage system features, including annual costs, lifetime and state of charge, into the optimal placement formulation to enhance frequency response with a minimum storage capacity. Two well-known dynamical frequency criteria, the frequency nadir and the rate of change of frequency, are utilized in the optimization formulation to determine minimum energy storage systems. Moreover, a power angle-based stability index is also used to assess the effect of virtual inertia on transient stability. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are further conducted to assess the applicability of the method. The efficiency of the proposed framework is demonstrated on a linearized model of a three-area power system as well as two nonlinear systems. Simulation results suggest that the proposed method gives improved results in terms of stability measures and less ESS capacity, when compared with other methods proposed in the literature.
"Real-time Energy Management of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Linear Quadratic Regulation"
Energies, Vol. 13, N°. 21, p. 1-19, 11,
DOI: 10.3390/en13215538
13KRIM Youssef, ABBES Dhaker, ROBYNS Benoît
"Joint optimisation of sizing and fuzzy logic power management of a hybrid storage system considering economic reliability indices"
IET Renewable Power Generation, p. 1-11, ISBN ISSN 1752-1416, 10,
This study is interested in optimisation of both sizing and energy management system of a hybrid storage system (HSS) associated with photovoltaic panels. The battery (BT) considered as the principal storage organ and a super-capacitor used as the secondary storage system to improve the BT life span makes up the HSS. The main purpose of this study is to explore a novel optimisation approach to jointly optimise the sizing and the fuzzy logic energy management system (FLEMS). In fact, an optimisation function based on sequential quadratic programming algorithm is proposed. The optimisation methodology has been performed jointly and successfully for the sizing of the BT storage system and the membership functions parameters
of the FLEMS in order to decrease the levelised cost of energy with a violation time by 5% of mean absolute percentage error
score <1.5% throughout the year. According to the simulations results, a benefit analysis has been done to assess the associated financial impact.
14QORIA Taoufik, ROKROK Ebrahim, BRUYERE Antoine, FRANCOIS Bruno, GUILLAUD Xavier
"A PLL-Free Grid-Forming Control with Decoupled Functionalities for High-Power Transmission System Applications"
IEEE Access, 10
"Techno-Economic Comparison of Total Cost of Ownership of Electric and Diesel Vehicles"
IEEE Access, Vol. 8, p. 195752-195762, 10, url,
Despite their low environmental impact, electrical vehicles have low penetration in the automotive market. Consumers are reluctant for technical reasons (limited driving range and long charging time) but also for an economic reason (high investment costs). Electric vehicle total cost of ownership (TCO) is often perceived as higher than for a thermal car, especially in Europe where diesel cars have a lower TCO than gasoline cars. Accurate TCO estimations are critical, but most of the techno-economic studies of electrified vehicles are based on very simplified energy models. In this paper, a techno-economic model is developed using an accurate technical model of an electric vehicle and a diesel car of the same segment. These technical models are validated by experimental measurements on real cars using real driving cycles. These models are then coupled to economic models to calculate TCO for a French case study. The total cost of ownership of the studied electric car is lower than for the equivalent diesel car by about 1000€ for a 5-year ownership period. Of particular importance is the finding that using real driving cycles instead of standard driving cycles decreases the TCO of electric cars while simultaneously increasing the TCO of diesel vehicles. This has implications for techno-economic models, suggesting that the typical TCO approach that uses manufacturer-reported standard cycle data may be systemically biased towards thermal vehicles. In order to understand how TCO may change in different locations, a sensitivity analysis varies different technical and economic factors. Government subsidy, ownership duration, and vehicle depreciation are the most important factors for the TCO of electric vehicles. However, TCO of the electric cars can be lower than the TCO of equivalent diesel cars under a wide range of reasonable inputs.
16MARAULT Jérôme, GILLON Frédéric, HECQUET Michel, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm
"Optimization of the MMF spatial harmonic content to design electrical machine winding"
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), 10
17STEPHANT Matthieu, ABBES Dhaker, HASSAM-OUARI Kahina, LABRUNIE Antoine, ROBYNS Benoît
"Increasing photovoltaic self-consumption with game theory and blockchain"
EAI Endorsed Transactions on Energy Web, ISBN 10.4108/eai.27-10-2020.166770, 10, url,
INTRODUCTION: This paper presents a distributed approach to optimise self-consumption on a local energy community containing photovoltaic generators, electric vehicles, loads and a storage system.
OBJECTIVES: The goal is to maximise energy sharing between users while preserving the indivual objectives of each user.
METHODS: Game theory is employed to model users’ behavior and preferences. A distributed algorithm is used to solve the optimisation problem. In addition, a physical model of the grid is built to verify if the solutions respect grid constraints. Finally, a private blockchain environnement is deployed to concretely implement this distributed framework with a smart contract.
RESULTS: It is shown that the proposed approach effectively leads to an increase of self-consumption rate on the local grid.
CONCLUSION: The proposed distributed framework, combining game theory and blockchain, shows real potential to improve energy sharing on energy communities.
18MOHAMODHOSEN Bilquis, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, GILLON Frédéric
"Rotor head shape optimization in a salient pole synchronous machine"
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 64, N°. 1, 10
19HITTINGER Eric, CIEZ Rebecca
"Modeling Costs and Benefits of Energy Storage Systems"
Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 45, 10, url,
In recent years, analytical tools and approaches to model the costs and benefits
of energy storage have proliferated in parallel with the rapid growth
in the energy storage market. Some analytical tools focus on the technologies
themselves, with methods for projecting future energy storage technology
costs and different cost metrics used to compare storage system designs.
Other tools focus on the integration of storage into larger energy systems,
including how to economically operate energy storage, estimate the air pollution
and greenhouse gas emissions effects of storage, or understand how
policy and market rules influence storage deployment and operation. Given
the confluence of evolving technologies, policies, and systems, we highlight
some key challenges for future energy storage models, including the use of
imperfect information to make dispatch decisions for energy-limited storage
technologies and estimating how different market structures will impact the
deployment of additional energy storage.
"Annual variation in energy consumption of an electric vehicle used for commuting"
Energies, Vol. 13, N°. 18, 9, url,
The energy consumption of an electric vehicle is due to the traction subsystem and also the comfort subsystem. If for a regular trip the traction energy can be relatively the same, the comfort energy has an important variation depending on the season temperatures. In order to plan the annual charging operation of an eco-campus, a simulation tool is developed for an accurate determination of the consumption of an electric vehicle all along the year. The developed model has been validated by comparison with experimental measurement with a real vehicle on a real driving cycle. Different commuting trips are analyzed for a complete year. For the considered city in France, the energy consumption leads to an overconsumption up to 33% in winter due to heating, and only 15% in Sumer due to air conditioning. Urban commuting driving cycle are more affected by the comfort than extra-urban trips.
21LI Ke, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir, EVANS Paul, JOHNSON Mark
"Accurate Measurement of Dynamic ON-state Resistances of GaN Devices under Reverse and Forward Conduction in High Frequency Power Converter"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 35, N°. 9, p. 9652 - 9662, ISBN 1941-0107, 9, url,
Because of trapped charges in GaN transistor structure, device dynamic ON-state resistance RDSon is increased when it is operated in high frequency switched power converters, in which device is possibly operated by zero voltage switching (ZVS) to reduce its turn-ON switching losses. When GaN transistor finishes ZVS during one switching period, device has been operated under both reverse and forward conduction. Therefore its dynamic RDSon under both conduction modes needs to be carefully measured to understand device power losses. For this reason, a measurement circuit with simple structure and fast dynamic response is proposed to characterise device reverse and forward RDSon . In order to improve measurement sensitivity when device switches at high frequency, a trapezoidal current mode is proposed to measure device RDSon under almost constant current, which resolves measurement sensitivity issues caused by unavoidable measurement circuit parasitic inductance and measurement probes deskew in conventional device characterisation method by triangle current mode. Proposed measurement circuit and measurement method is then validated by first characterising a SiC-MOSFET with constant RDSon . Then, the comparison on GaN-HEMT dynamic RDSon measurement results demonstrates the improved accuracy of proposed trapezoidal current mode over conventional triangle current mode when device switches at 1MHz.
"Energy management of a multi-source vehicle by λ-control"
Applied Sciences, Vol. 10, N°. 18, p. 6541, 9
23GONG Ruohan, TANG Zuqi
"Investigation of Convolutional Neural Network U-net under Small Datasets in Transformer Magneto-Thermal Coupled Analysis"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 39, N°. 4, p. 959-970, ISBN 0332-1649, 8, url,
This paper aims to investigate the approach combine the deep learning (DL) and finite element method for the magneto-thermal coupled problem.
"Decentralized Neighbourhood Energy Management Considering Residential Profiles and Welfare for Grid Load Smoothing"
Sustainable Cities and Society, Vol. 63, 8
25EL YOUSSEF Mohamad, VAN GORP Adrien, CLENET Stéphane, BENABOU Abdelkader, FAVEROLLE Pierre, MIPO Jean-Claude
"Experimental set up for magnetomechanical measurements with a closed flux path sample"
Open Physics, Vol. 18, N°. 1, 8, url,
In this article, an experimental procedure is presented to handle magnetic measurements under uniaxial tensile stress reaching the plastic domain. The main advantage of the proposed procedure is that it does not require an additional magnetic core to close the magnetic flux path through the studied sample. The flux flows only in the sample, and no parasitic air gaps are introduced, thus avoiding the use of the H-coil to evaluate the magnetic field, which is often very sensitive and not easy to calibrate. A specimen of nonoriented FeSi (1.3%) sheet (M330-35A) is characterized under uniaxial tensile stress. To validate the proposed procedure, a comparison with the single sheet tester procedure is carried out. The results obtained by the two procedures are in good agreement. Moreover, to illustrate the possibilities offered by the proposed procedure, we confirm some results obtained in the literature. We show that the positive plastic strain leads to a significant degradation of magnetic behavior. An applied tensile stress on a virgin (unstrained) sample leads to a degradation of the magnetic behavior. However, on a pre-strained sample, an applied tensile stress results in reducing the deterioration caused by the plastic strain until a stress value called optimum is attained. Above this threshold, the magnetic behavior re-deteriorates progressively.
26QORIA Taoufik, GRUSON François, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier, KESTELYN Xavier
"Current Limiting Algorithms and Transient Stability Analysis of Grid-Forming VSCs"
Electric Power Systems Research (EPSR), 8
27ROKROK Ebrahim, QORIA Taoufik, BRUYERE Antoine, FRANCOIS Bruno, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Classification of Droop-Based Grid-Forming Control Schemes: Application in Forced Commutated Converter-Based HVDC Systems"
Electric Power Systems Research (EPSR), 8
28COSSART Quentin, COLAS Frédéric, KESTELYN Xavier
"A Novel Event- and Non-Projection-Based Approximation Technique by State Residualization for the Model Order Reduction of Power Systems with a High Renewable Energies Penetration"
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 7,
The fast development of renewable energies leads to an increase in the power electronics penetration in transmission systems. This is particularly true if one considers a 100% renewable energies power system, where wind and solar photovoltaic energies, which make most of the renewable energies connections today, are connected to the grid through power electronics converters. Because power electronics-based generators and synchronous machines-based generators have very different dynamic behaviours, some approximations usually used to run transient simulations of transmission systems might not be optimal for future grids. The systematic use of the phasor approximation applied to the power lines, implemented in most of the Transient Simulation Programs, is indeed not relevant any more. To avoid the use of Electromagnetic Transient simulations, that are resource-demanding and time-consuming, this paper presents a novel Model Order Reduction technique for large grids with a high penetration of power electronic devices. Compared to the classical phasor approximation, this event-based state residualization approximation allows accurate transient simulations and at the same time an optimal reduction of the number of the system's state variables depending on the observed variables, the considered events and the tolerated approximation error.
29UGWUANYI Nnaemeka, KESTELYN Xavier, OLIVIER Thomas, MARINESCU Bogdan, ARTURO Messina
"A New Fast Track to Nonlinear Modal Analysis of Power System Using Normal Form"
IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 35, N°. 4, p. 3247-3257, ISBN 1558-0679, 7, url,
The inclusion of higher-order terms in small-signal (modal) analysis augments the information provided by linear analysis and enables better dynamic characteristic studies on the power system. This can be done by applying Normal Form theory to simplify the higher order terms. However, it requires the preliminary expansion of the nonlinear system on the normal mode basis, which is impracticable with standard methods when considering large scale systems. In this paper, we present an efficient numerical method for accelerating those computations, by avoiding the usual Taylor expansion. Our computations are
based on prescribing the linear eigenvectors as unknown field in the initial nonlinear system, which leads to solving linear-only equations to obtain the coefficients of the nonlinear modal model. In this way, actual Taylor expansion and associated higher order Hessian matrices are avoided, making the computation of the nonlinear model up to third order and nonlinear modal analysis fast and achievable in a convenient computational time. The proposed method is demonstrated on a single-machine-infinite-bus (SMIB) system and applied to IEEE 3-Machine, IEEE 16- Machine and IEEE 50-Machine systems.
30AYDOUN Racha, PARENT Guillaume, LECOINTE Jean-Philippe, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm
"Investigating the use of grain-oriented electrical steel in axial-flux switched reluctance machines"
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 63, N°. 4, p. 691-703, 7
31DARQUES Kévin, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, LE MENACH Yvonnick, KORECKI Julien, BEDDEK Karim
"Effect of end windings on the shaft voltage of a high power alternator using FE analysis"
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 63, N°. 4, p. 661-671, 7
32SHIHAB Sylvain, BENABOU Abdelkader
"Linking the differential permeability and loss coefficients in Bertotti’s approach"
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (JMMM), Vol. 503, 6, url,
In this work, we investigate in Fe-Si laminations the core-loss coefficients variation with the flux density within the loss statistical approach framework. We find that the dynamical core-loss coefficients can be linked with the differential permeability defined from the low frequency normal curve. We interpret these variations as the fingerprint of the domain-wall activity (i.e. all the processes involving domain-wall movements, nucleation and anihilation) during the magnetization process. We show that the classical loss variation can be qualitatively described by the macroscopic formulation of the skin-depth, but not quantitatively.
33LEGRY Martin, DIEULOT Jean-Yves, COLAS Frédéric, SAUDEMONT Christophe, DUCARME Olivier
"Non-linear primary control mapping for droop-like behavior of microgrid systems"
IEEE Transactions on smart grid, 6
34MESSAL Oualid, VO A-T, FASSENET Maryline, MAS Patrick, BUFFAT Sebastien, KEDOUS-LEBOUC, Afef
"Advanced approach for static part of loss-surface iron loss model"
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (JMMM), Vol. 502, 5, url,
Hysteresis models allow the prediction of iron losses in materials under complex magnetic excitation, with accuracy depending on their principle and identification procedure. Commonly, to achieve high accuracy, a model may require a broad set of experimental input data, which is in some cases, not easy to obtain. We propose, in this study, a static model focusing on simplicity while still striving for accuracy. Its principle is to represent the variation of the field deviation between reversal curves and a near saturation hysteresis loop. In terms of input data, this model requires the experimental first magnetization curve and a few quasi-static centered hysteresis loops of the material. Following the principle description, the identification procedure, the model validation, as well as a sensitivity study are presented in detail.
35JAMIL Meryeme, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane, SHIHAB Sylvain, LE BELLU ARBENZ Laure, MIPO Jean-Claude
"Magneto-thermal characterization of bulk forged magnetic steel used in claw pole machine"
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (JMMM), Vol. 502, 5, url,
During the operation of Claw Pole (CP) machines, and for some operating loads, the magnetic core temperature can reach 180°C in some hot spots. As a consequence, the core electromagnetic properties may considerably change, impacting the machine performances. In such a case, a deep knowledge of the electromagnetic behavior as a function of the temperature is required.

In this paper, we present a dedicated study of the CP rotor made from a forged magnetic steel. In fact, the CP magnetic properties heterogeneity and the claw shape made it necessary to extract specific samples that are characterized with a miniaturized Single Sheet Tester (SST). To that end, this work proposes a specific methodology to characterize the electromagnetic properties of the CP rotor material as a function of the temperature in order to better predict the machine electrical performances, especially regarding the iron losses.
36LI Chuanyue Li, JUN Liang, CIPCIGAN Liana, WENLONG Ming, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier
"DQ impedance stability analysis for the power-controlled grid-connected inverter"
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 5
37SHAHRIARI Ejlal, GRUSON François, VERMEERSCH Pierre, DELARUE Philippe, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier
"A Novel DC Fault Ride Through Control Methodology for Hybrid Modular Multilevel Converters in HVDC Systems"
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 5,
Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is an established technology for HVDC or Multi-Terminal DC (MTDC) systems, due to its advantages over classical Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) such as two or three level VSCs. To achieve a full control of all state variables, it is essential to implement energy-based method in which a cascade control loop is employed to regulate all state variables including ac and differential currents, and stored energy within MMC arms. In addition to normal operation control, dc Fault Ride Through (DC-FRT) capability of the MMC is a crucial and challenging control issue especially for overhead line HVDC system where non-permanent dc fault occurrence is statistically more probable. Furthermore, the main problematic technical obstacle to develop HVDC/MTDC grids is the lack of mature dc fault protection. Since conventional control in normal operation cannot be employed in case of dc fault, an efficient control strategy is indispensable. The principal objectives of the novel control methodology are to (i) obtain DC-FRT capability, (ii) decay short circuit current to zero, (iii) secure the MMC through leg and arm energy balancing, (iv) support ac grid as a Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) and (v) resume normal operation after dc fault clearance. The simulation results verify the validity of proposed control strategy to fulfill the abovementioned objectives in dc fault operation of the hybrid MMC.
38DARQUES Kévin, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, LE MENACH Yvonnick, BEDDEK Karim
"Investigation on the shaft voltage generation of large synchronous turboalternators"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), 5
"Model order reduction techniques applied to magnetodynamic T-Ω-formulation"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), 5
40HELBLING Hugo, BENABOU Abdelkader, VAN GORP Adrien, EL YOUSSEF Mohamad, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, BOUGHANMI Walid, LALOY Daniel
"Effect on magnetic properties of inhomogeneous compressive stress in thickness direction of an electrical steel stack"
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (JMMM), Vol. 500, 4, url,
The manufacturing processes of electrical machines may lead to significant degradation of magnetic core
properties and therefore of the machine performance. Laminations are usually stacked and pressed which affects
the magnetic properties and the iron losses. However, the influence of this step must be still investigated when
large generators are considered. Indeed, in that case, the stator and rotor stacking process consists in assembling
several stacks of electrical steel sheets separated by airvents. The surface of the airvent spacers represents about
ten percent of the lamination surface of the magnetic circuit, implying, during the compaction process, an
inhomogeneous stress distribution with significant local stresses. The present work deals with the experimental
characterization of a lamination stack, including airvents, under compressive stress in the thickness direction. A
mock-up has been designed and built-up to study magnetic properties of lamination stacks under pressing
conditions corresponding to the industrial process.
41M'ZALI Nabil, MARTIN Floran, AYDIN Ugur, BELAHCEN Anouar, BENABOU Abdelkader, HENNERON Thomas
"Determination of stress dependent magnetostriction from a macroscopic magneto-mechanical model and experimental magnetization curves"
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (JMMM), Vol. 500, 4, url,
In this paper, we propose a method to identify the magnetostrictive behavior of electrical steel sheet submitted to a mechanical loading. The technique relies on the use of a magneto-mechanical model including the magnetostrictive phenomenon, namely the anhysteretic Jiles-Atherton-Sablik (JAS) model, and experimental macroscopic
stress dependent magnetization curves. The method is illustrated with measured magnetization curves of a non-oriented (NO) electrical steel sheet under different stresses. Furthermore, the influence of a bi-axial mechanical
loading on the magnetostrictive behavior is analyzed with the help of an equivalent stress.
42GRUSON François, TLEMCANI Amine, LI Yafang, DELARUE Philippe, LE MOIGNE Philippe, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Model and Control of the DC-DC Modular Multilevel Converter with DC fault tolerance"
EPE Journal, 4,
This paper presents the modelling of the DC-DC Multilevel Modular Converter (DC-DC MMC) with half-bridge Sub-Modules (SM) and the control based on the inversion of its model. The DC-DC MMC structure presents many advantages such as its modularity, the absence of capacitors on the high DC bus voltage and a very low switching frequency due to the large number of SMs. This topology also preserves the intrinsic disadvantages of the MMC as the complexity of modelling and controlling due to the large number of semiconductors and state variables to control. The control of this converter cannot be symmetrical due to the interconnection of the two parts by an internal AC grid. The control strategy of one part of the DC-DC MMC uses the conventional control scheme with currents controls and stored energy control. The second one uses the energy control and produces the waveform of the three-phase internal AC bus voltage linking the two parts of the converter. The explicit control for the generation of internal AC voltages guarantees the correct operation of the converter even in a critical DC voltage dip on one or the other DC buses. Thus, it avoids the need of a DC circuit breaker or the use of full bridge MMC sub-modules. The validity of the proposed control is verified by simulation using Matlab-Simulink.
"Risk management model for simultaneous participation of a distribution company in Day-ahead and Real-time markets"
segan, Vol. 21, 3,
In Active Distribution Networks (ADNs), Distribution Company (Disco) follows two main strategies of dispatching of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and trading energy with wholesale energy markets, including Day-Ahead (DA) and Real-Time (RT) markets, to meet the demand. An attempt is made in this paper to model the strategic behavior of the Disco, in the wholesale DA and RT energy markets, through a bi-level optimization approach While the objective of the upper-level problem is to minimize the expected cost of the Disco, the lower-level problem (with two optimization problems) formulates to simultaneously maximize the social-welfare of the DA market and minimize the cost of the RT market. Furthermore, uncertain behavior of renewable energy sources as well as demand is tackled into the problem formulation. To this end, Disco decision-making represents as a risk-based two-stage stochastic problem where the Disco’s risk aversion is modeled using conditional value at risk (CVaR) method. Generally stated, the proposed model is a non-linear bi-level problem which may be transformed into a non-linear but single-level problem through Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) conditions and dual theory. Detailed numerical results on a 6-bus and RTS 24-bus power systems are used to demonstrate efficiency of the proposed model. Moreover, sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of risk-aversion parameter on the decision making of the Disco and the offers/bids in both the DA and RT markets.
"Power System Nonlinear Modal Analysis Using Computationally Reduced Normal Form Method"
Energies, Vol. 13, N°. 5, p. 1249, ISBN https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051249, 3, url,
Increasing nonlinearity in today’s grid challenges the conventional small-signal (modal) analysis (SSA) tools. For instance, the interactions among modes, which are not captured by SSA, may play significant roles in a stressed power system. Consequently, alternative nonlinear modal analysis tools, notably Normal Form (NF) and Modal Series (MS) methods are being explored. However, they are computation-intensive due to numerous polynomial coefficients required. This paper proposes a fast NF technique for power system modal interaction investigation, which uses characteristics of system modes to carefully select relevant terms to be considered in the analysis. The Coefficients related to these terms are selectively computed and the resulting approximate model is computationally reduced compared to the one in which all the coefficients are computed. This leads to a very rapid nonlinear modal analysis of the power systems. The reduced model is used to study interactions of modes in a two-area power system where the tested scenarios give same results as the full model, with about 70% reduction in computation time.
"Inverter Fault Diagnosis of an Electrical Series-Connected Two Sinusoidal Six-Phase Permanent Magnet Machines Drive"
IET Electric Power Applications, 3, url,
This paper investigates a real-time fault diagnostic of a transportation system which needs two drives with fault-tolerance capabilities. Because of constraints on the mass of the system and on the cost of the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI), a drive with two Six-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) in series-connection supplied by two six-leg inverters is chosen. Despite the serial -connection, independent control of the two machines and fault –tolerance to open-switch fault is ensured. Nevertheless, a Fault Detection Identification (FDI) process is required for analysis and/or control reconfiguration. The proposed FDI is based on the combination of different criteria obtained from the two zero-sequence currents and from the normalized currents mapped into two frames defined by the Concordia Transformation. Results obtained from simulation and experimental tests show the effectiveness of the proposal.
46BUIRE Jérôme, DIEULOT Jean-Yves, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier, DE ALVARO GARCIA Léticia
"Convex formulation of confidence level optimization of DG affine reactive power controllers in distribution grids"
Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 180, p. 106132, 3, url,
Volatile productions and consumptions generate a stochastic behavior of distribution grids and make its supervision difficult to achieve. Usually, the Distributed Generators reactive powers are adjusted to perform decentralized voltage control. Industrial controllers are generally equipped with a local affine feedback law, which settings are tuned at early stage using local data. A centralized and more efficient tuning method should aim to maximize the probability that all the node voltages of distribution grids remain within prescribed bounds. When the characteristics of the stochastic power forecasts are known, the centralized algorithm allows to update the settings on a regular time basis. However, the method requires to solve stochastic optimization problem. Assuming that stochastic variables have Gaussian distributions, a procedure is given which guarantees the convergence of the stochastic optimization. Convex problems drastically reduce the difficulty and the computational time required to reach the global minimum, compared to nonconvex optimal power flow problems. The linear controllers with optimized parameters are compared to traditional control laws using simulations of a real distribution grid model. The results show that the algorithm is reliable and moreover fast enough. Hence, the proposed method can be used to update periodically the control parameters.
47SCUILLER Franck, BECKER Florent, ZAHR Hussein, SEMAIL Eric
"Design of a bi-harmonic 7-phase PM machine with tooth-concentrated winding"
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, p. 1-10, 3, url,
If multi-phase machines equipped with tooth concentrated winding with half a slot per pole and per phase offer interesting characteristics (simplified manufacturing, no space subharmonic, fault-tolerant ability), their low fundamental winding factors make their designs and controls challenging. The paper addresses the case of a seven-phase Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine which has a fundamental winding factor lower than the third. This so-called bi-harmonic specificity is considered in order to achieve good torque quality (average value and ripples). Regarding the design, the magnet layer is segmented into two identical radially magnetized tiles that cover about three-quarters the pole arc. Regarding the control, the rated Maximum Torque Per Ampere (MTPA) supply strategy (h1h3 control) aims at generating a third harmonic current component greater than the fundamental. A prototype has been manufactured: the ability of the machine to provide smooth torque is experimentally confirmed through the implementation of a simple MTPA control which copes with high distortion in
no-load voltage.
48KRIM Youssef, ABBES Dhaker, KRIM Saber, MIMOUNI Mohamed Faouzi
"STA and SOSM control‐based approach of a renewable power generator for adjusting grid frequency and voltage"
International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, Vol. 30, N°. 6, p. e12363, ISBN 10.1002/2050-7038.12363, 2, url,
This article is interested in a controlled three‐phased voltage source inverter (VSI) for a grid‐connected wind power generator. The objective consists of participating in auxiliary services by enhancing the grid stability. An active wind generator associated with a battery/super‐capacitor storage system composes the studied renewable generator. It is related to a power consumer (load) to form a microgrid (MG) that can work according to grid stability in two modes: standalone and grid‐tied. Thus, the principal objective of this study is to develop a robust control method for MG connection with the grid to ensure the grid voltage and frequency regulation. This control has two control tasks: First, an adaptive droop control is implemented to adjust power flows exchanged with the grid to ensure its stability. It regulates its voltage and frequency. Second, a sliding mode control (SMC) with super‐twisting algorithm is put forward for the VSI to improve the regulation of the grid voltage and frequency under uncertainties. It improves control results concerning the reduction of harmonics caused by sudden variations of the load and of powers exchanged with the grid. It allows preventing the phenomenon of chattering created by classical sliding mode technique. Extensive simulation studies are carried out under MATLAB/Simulink. They prove the effectiveness of the suggested droop and SMCs compared with the classical proportional‐integral controller.
49GRUSON François, LI Yafang, DELARUE Philippe, LE MOIGNE Philippe, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Full State Regulation of the Modular Multilevel DC converter (M2DC) achieving minimization of circulating currents"
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 35, p. 301-309, 2, url,
The M2DC exploits the interleaving between the three legs of an MMC to realize a promising uninsulated DC/DC converter to interconnect HVDC grids. This paper details a current and energies decoupled model of the M2DC. The major idea proposed in this paper is focused on the full energy control generating optimal current references to minimize the internal currents magnitude. The energy sum and difference models are fully detailled. Both current and energy control loops are based on the model inversion principle in order to control all the state variables. The proposed control is based a dynamic control developed with the model inversion principle associated on an optimization of the current magnitude deduced from a quasi static analysis. All dynamics of the system are then explicitly controlled, which guarantee a good dynamic behavior during the transient. Therefore, current and energy controls are presented in details. Simulation results show the dynamic behavior of the converter for various operating points.
50CARON Guillaume, HENNERON Thomas, PIRIOU Francis, FAVEROLLE Pierre, MIPO Jean-Claude
"3D Numerical Modelling of Claw-pole Alternators with its Electrical Environment"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 56, N°. 1, 2,
This paper describes a methodology for modelling a six-phase claw-pole alternator with its electrical environment. Magnetic
nonlinearities, eddy currents and rectifiers are taken into account. To solve magnetodynamic problems, we use the modified magnetic vector potential formulation. The complex structure of the machine requires a 3D finite element analysis. To limit the mesh size, we introduced a refinement strategy based on the calculation of the time derivative of magnetic vector potential, solution of the magnetostatic case. In addition, we propose to reduce the transient state by improving the initial solution from the solution of a magnetostatic problem. These different numerical techniques reduce drastically the computational time and memory resources. To validate the proposed approach, some results are compared with experimental ones.
51M'ZALI Nabil, MARTIN Floran, SUNDARIA Ravi, HENNERON Thomas, BENABOU Abdelkader, BELAHCEN Anouar
"Finite-Element Modeling of Magnetic Properties Degradation Due to Plastic Deformation"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 56, N°. 2, ISBN 7506704, 2, url,
In this article, the anhysteretic Sablik model is identified from measurements and implemented in a finite-element (FE) code.
The model takes into account the effect of the plastic deformation through the dislocation density, and thus, enables to account for the degradation of the magnetic properties. A new model for magnetostriction is proposed and implemented in the Sablik model. Experimental data are used to identify the parameters of both Sablik model and proposed magnetostriction. Furthermore, the mechanical punching process of an electrical steel sheet is simulated in view of evaluating the plastic strain distribution near the punched edge. Based on the Sablik model and the simulated plastic strain, FE simulations are carried out on a steel sheet and a cage induction machine. The effect of the punching process on the distribution of magnetic-flux density and the magnetization current is analyzed.
52MARTIN Floran, AYDIN Ugur, RUZIBAEV Abubakr, GE Yanling, DANIEL Laurent, BERNARD Laurent, RASILO Paavo, BENABOU Abdelkader, BELAHCEN Anouar
"Analysis of the Magneto-Mechanical Anisotropy of Steel Sheets in Electrical Applications"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 56, N°. 2, 2, url,
We investigate the effect of magneto-mechanical and magnetocrystalline anisotropies in a test application by coupling a multiscale magneto-mechanical model with a finite element method. This first application is composed of a cylindrical conductor surrounded by a ring composed of a non-oriented FeSi 3 % steel sheet which contains 396 representative grain orientations. Such an application can reveal the anisotropy due to the texture of the material by inducing a rotational flux density within the ring. Moreover, the effect of the texture and the magneto-mechanical characteristic of the steel sheets is analyzed in an axially laminated synchronous reluctance machine. The effect of stress strongly emphasizes the anisotropic behavior of NO steel sheets.
53TANG Zuqi, ZHAO Yanpu
"Residual Type a posteriori Error Estimates for 3-D Low Frequency Stable Maxwell Formulations in Both Frequency and Time Domains"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 56, N°. 1, p. 1-4, 1, url,
In this paper, residual type a posteriori error estimates developed in our previous work for magnetostatic and eddy current problems are extended to low-frequency (LF) Maxwell problems using A/φ formulation, where both inductive and capacitive effects can be handled simultaneously. Classical low order finite element basis (LOFEB), as well as high order finite element basis (HOFEB) of edge and nodal type are adopted in numerical examples to evaluate the performance of the proposed estimators.
54YAN Shuai, TANG Zuqi, HENNERON Thomas, REN Zhuoxiang
"Structure-Preserved Reduced Order Modeling for Frequency Domain Solution of the Darwin Model with a Gauged Potential Formulation"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 56, N°. 1, p. 1-4, 1, url,
In this work, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied for parametric analysis in the gauged potential formulation of the Darwin model considering both capacitive and inductive effects. Due to the large contrast in material parameters, the resulted system matrix is ill-conditioned. Also, the condition number of the corresponding snapshot complex matrix is very huge. To improve the stability of the POD method, a structured-preserving strategy is considered and implemented for different unknown potentials, namely the magnetic vector potential A, the electric scalar potential φ, and the Lagrange multiplier p. Besides, a greedy algorithm is proposed to select the snapshots adaptively. Two numerical examples, including a parallel plate capacitor and a modified RLC device structure, are provided to illustrate the capability of proposed POD in model order reduction in frequency domain solvers.
55YAN Shuai, TANG Zuqi, HENNERON Thomas, REN Zhuoxiang
"Proper Generalized Decomposition for Edge Elements in Magnetostatics with Adaptive Stopping Criterion"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 56, N°. 1, p. 1-4, 1, url,
The proper generalized decomposition (PGD) is ana priorimodel order reduction (MOR) method based on a variable-separatedexpression of the problem. Two iterative loops are needed in the PGD algorithm, namely the outer loop for enriching the reductionmodes progressively, and the inner loop for solving each mode by fixed point iterations. Setting the stopping criterion of these twoloops blindly can cause either the inaccuracy of the PGD or a waste of iterations. In this work, a special variable-separated PGDwith edge elements is proposed and implemented on a hexahedral mesh in magnetostatics. Also, an adaptive stopping criterion basedon dual formulations is applied to balance different error components, namely the discretization error, error for outer and innerloops of PGD. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed approach
56HENNERON Thomas, PIERQUIN Antoine, CLENET Stéphane
"Surrogate Model based on the POD combined with the RBF Interpolation of Nonlinear Magnetostatic FE model"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 56, N°. 1, p. 1-4, 1
57BEKIR Wissem, EL AMRAOUI Lilia, GILLON Frederic
"Optimal Control of Electrical Machines using Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle"
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 64, N°. S1, p. S253-S267, 1,
This paper presents an optimization method that deal with control techniques for electrical machines, in order to impose a displacement with a minimum of energy consumption. It’s a generic method; However, its application to electrical machines is complex for implementation. The present work provides the shape of the optimal solution. Moreover, a resolution technique related to the nature of the model is proposed, which facilitate the numerical resolution of costate problem. The method is applied to hybrid stepper motor and the obtained results are then analyzed.
58MULLER Fabian, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane, HAMEYER Kay
"Error Estimators for Proper Generalized Decomposition in Time-Dependent Electromagnetic Field Problems"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 56, N°. 1, 1
59MEKAHLIA Abdelhak, SEMAIL Eric, SCUILLER Franck, ZAHR Hussein
"Reduced-Order Model of Rotor Cage in Multiphase Induction Machines: Application on the Prediction of Torque Pulsations"
Mathematical and Computational Applications (MCA - MDPI), Vol. 25, N°. 11, 1, url,
For three-phase induction machines supplied by sinusoidal current, it is usual to model the n-bar squirrel-cage by an equivalent two-phase circuit. For a multiphase induction machine which can be supplied with different harmonics of current, the reduced-order model of the rotor must be more carefully chosen in order to predict the pulsations of torque. The proposed analysis allows to avoid a wrong design with non-sinusoidal magnetomotive forces. An analytical approach is proposed and confirmed by Finite-Element modelling at first for a three-phase induction machine and secondly for a five-phase induction machine.
60PILE Raphaël, LE MENACH Yvonnick, LE BESNERAIS Jean, PARENT Guillaume
"Study of the Combined Effects of the Air-Gap Transfer for Maxwell Tensor and the Tooth Mechanical Modulation in Electrical Machines"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 56, N°. 1, 1, url,
The Maxwell Tensor (MT) method is widely used to compute global forces or local surface forces for vibroacoustic design of electrical machines under electromagnetic excitation. In particular, the air-gap MT method is based on a cylindrical shell in the middle of the air gap. This article proposes to quantify the differences between the air-gap MT and the magnetic force wave experienced by the stator. In particular, the air gap to stator transfer and the tooth mechanical modulation effects are studied. A new formula is proposed to extend the tooth modulation effect to tangential forces. A numerical application is performed with a turbo-alternator to illustrate the respective and combined effects of both phenomena. This article highlights that the tooth mechanical modulation is relevant even for electrical machines with a high number of teeth. In addition, the combination of the two phenomena has a clear impact on the calculated surface force. Therefore, it is recommended to take into account the air-gap transfer for any study of the tooth mechanical modulation effect.
"Dynamical Coupling of a Battery Electro-Thermal Model and the Traction Model of an EV for Driving Range Simulation"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 69, N°. 1, p. 328-337, 1
1QORIA Taoufik, LI Chuanyue Li, OUE Ko, GRUSON François, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Direct AC Voltage Control for Grid-forming Inverters"
Journal of Power Electronics, 12, url,
Grid-forming inverters usually use inner cascaded controllers in order to regulate the output AC voltage and the converter
output current. Yet, at the power transmission system level where the power inverter bandwidth is limited (i.e.; low switching
frequency), it is difficult to tune its controller parameters to achieve the desired performances because of the control loops
interactions. In this paper, a direct AC voltage control based state-feedback control is applied. Its control gains are tuned using
the linear quadratic regulator. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is proposed in order to choose the right cost factors that allow
the system to achieve the imposed specifications. Conventionally, the system based on direct AC voltage control has no restriction on the inverter current. Hence, in this paper, threshold virtual impedance has been added to the state-feedback control in order to protect the inverter against overcurrent. The robustness of the proposed control is assessed for different short circuit ratio using small signal stability analysis, then, checked in different grid topologies using time domain simulations. An experimental test bench is developed in order to validate the proposed control.
"Automated tool for 3D planar magnetic temperature modelling: application to EE and E/PLT core-based components"
IET Power Electronics, Vol. 12, N°. 15, p. 4043 – 4053, 12, url,
Thermal performance of power converters is a key issue for the power integration. Temperatures inside active and passive devices can be determined using thermal models. Modelling the temperature distribution of high frequency magnetic components is quite complex due to diversity of their geometries and used materials. This paper presents a thermal modelling method based on lumped elements thermal network model, applied to planar magnetic components made of EE and E/PLT cores. The 3D model is automatically generated from the component’s geometry. The computation enables to obtain 3D temperature distribution inside windings and core of planar transformers or inductors, in steady state or in transient case. The paper details the proposed modelling method as well as the automated tool including the problem definition and the solving process. The obtained temperature distributions are compared with Finite Element simulation results and measurements on different planar transformers.
3QORIA Taoufik, GRUSON François, COLAS Frédéric, DENIS Guillaume, PREVOST Thibault, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Critical clearing time determination and enhancement of grid-forming converters embedding virtual impedance as current limitation algorithm"
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, 12, url,
The present paper deals with the post-fault synchronization of a voltage source converter based on the droop control. In case of large disturbances on the grid, the current is limited via current limitation algorithms such as the virtual impedance. During the fault, the power converter internal frequency deviates resulting in a converter angle divergence. Thereby, the system may lose the synchronism after fault clearing and which may lead to instability. Hence, this paper proposes a theoretical approach to explain the dynamic behavior of the grid forming converter subject to a three phase bolted fault. A literal expression of the critical clearing time is defined. Due to the precise analysis of the phenomenon, a simple algorithm can be derived to enhance the transient stability. It is based on adaptive gain included in the droop control. These objectives have been achieved with no external information and without switching from one control to the other. To prove the effectiveness of the developed control, experimental test cases have been performed in different faulted conditions.
"Attenuation of vibro-acoustic noise in a multi-phase machine"
Journal of Electrical and Electronic Systems, 12,
This paper studies the electromagnetic noise behaviour of a 5 phase Interior Permanent Magnet Machine with fractional slot concentrated winding designed. A numerical model is used for analysing the torque characteristics and electromagnetic forces. The vibro-acoustics and mechanical resonance of the model are then investigated analytically. The purpose of both analyses is to identify the source of electromagnetic noise within the machine. A sonogram is also carried out on the existing prototype to correlate it with the numerical results. Finally, the choice of the appropriate method to attenuate noise for this case study is elaborated.
"Impact of the Velocity Profile on Energy Consumption of Electric Vehicles"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 68, N°. 12, p. 11420-11426, 12
6JAMII Jannet, ABBES Dhaker, MIMOUNI Mohamed Faouzi
"Joint Operation Between Wind Power Generation with Pumped Hydro Energy Storage and Participation in Frequency Control: Study in Electricity Market"
International Journal of Renewable Energy Research-IJRER, Vol. 9, N°. 4, p. 2082-2091, 12, url,
Due to the intermittency and fluctuation of wind speed, the integration of wind power into electric power system has been a relevant issue. Recently, Pumped-storage hydro plant (PHES) can be used to balance the unstable output of wind farm, as it can adjust its production to compensate wind power fluctuation. This paper investigated the combination of a wind farm and a PHES facility from the point of view of a generation company in a market environment. A joint operation model between the wind farm and PHES is proposed. An algorithm of energy management system (EMS) is proposed to identify the daily operational strategy to be followed in order to:

1) Minimize the penalty cost resulted from wind-PHES output imbalances;

2) Maximize the daily revenue profit taking into consideration all constraints of joint operation.

Simulation results under MATLAB/SIMILINK®environment are presented and discussed.
7LA DELFA Patricio, HECQUET Michel, GILLON Frédéric
Journal of Open Physics, Vol. 17, N°. Issue 1, p. 643-651, ISBN DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/phys-2019-0066, 11,
The electromagnetic noise generated by the Maxwell radial pressure is a well-known consequence. In this paper, we present an analytical tool that allows air gap spatio-temporal pressures to be obtained from the radial flux density created by surface permanent magnet synchronous machines with concentrated winding (SPMSM). This tool based on winding function, a global air-gap permeance analytical model and total magnetomotive force product, determines the analytical air-gap spatio temporal and spectral radial pressure. We will see step-by-step their impacts in generating noise process. Also two predictive methods will be presented to determine the origin of the lows radial pressure orders noise sources. The interest lies in keeping results very quickly and appropriate in order to identify the low order electromagnetic noise origin. Then through an inverse approach using an iterative loop a new winding function is proposed in order to minimize radial force low order previously identified and chosen.
"On the Stabilization and Stability Domain Estimation of VSC-HVDC Transmission Systems"
IETE Journal of Research, 11, url,
Control of Voltage Source Converters (VSC) based HVDC transmission systems is developed in this paper. The
proposed approach aims the stabilization of VSC, which is characterized by non-linearities due to requirements
of power flow and DC bus voltage. The steady state average model for the VSC-HVDC system is developed on linear
and bilinear deviation state space model around the working point. Based on poles placement and Least Squares (LS)
methods, linear and nonlinear polynomial feedback are considered. The proposed approach leads to regulate
simultaneously the dq grid currents and the DC bus voltage. By upon the time domain simulations in
MATLAB environment, effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are tested on a VSC and a
point-to-point VSC-HVDC transmission system. The simulation results show the robustness of the studied systems
under various conditions.
9BUIRE Jérôme, COLAS Frédéric, DIEULOT Jean-Yves, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Stochastic Optimization of PQ Powers at the Interface between Distribution and Transmission Grids"
Energies, Vol. 12, N°. 21, 10, url,
This paper addresses the volt-var control of distribution grids embedding many distributed generators (DGs). Specifically, it focuses on the compliance of powers to specified PQ diagrams at the high voltage/medium voltage (HV/MV) interface while the voltages remain well controlled. This is achieved using a two-stage optimization corresponding to two different classes of actuators. The tap position of capacitor banks is selected on a daily basis, given a stochastic model of the input powers prediction, which allows infrequent actuation and increases the device lifespan. In a second stage, a confidence level optimization problem allows to tune on an hourly basis the parameters of the DGs reactive power affine control laws. Results on a real-size grid show that the combined tuning of these actuators allows the ability to comply with European grid codes while the control effort remains reasonable.
10BEKIR Wissem, EL AMRAOUI Lilia, GILLON Frederic
"Optimal Control and Design of Electrical Machines"
International Journal of Advance Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 10, N°. 9, 10,
This paper presents a global optimization approach aiming to improve the energy efficiency of electrical machines. The process is made on a hybrid stepper motor allowing to simultaneously optimize design and command. This approach is
axed around Pontryagin's maximum principle, which is applied to a magnetodynamic model based on permeances network
model. The originality of the proposed approach is to obtain in the same process, the minimization of the energy by optimal
control and the minimization of the energy by optimal sizing.
11AYDOUN Racha, PARENT Guillaume, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, LECOINTE Jean-Philippe, KOMEZA Krzysztof
"Comparison of 8/6 radial and axial flux switched reluctance machines"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 38, N°. 6, 10, url
12LIU Wei, LI Gen, LIANG Jun, UGALDE-LOO Carlos Ernesto, LI Chuanyue, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Protection of Single-Phase Fault at the Transformer Valve-Side of FB-MMC Based Bipolar HVDC Systems"
IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, 10,
Although the probability of occurrence of ac grounding faults at the valve-side of the interface transformer of a high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) link is low, they may cause high risks to the converter when compared to grid-side ac faults. This paper analyzes the characteristics of valve-side ac single-phase-to-ground faults in full-bridge modular multilevel converters (FB-MMCs) based bipolar HVDC systems. Overcurrents in the converter arms are analyzed and it is shown that overvoltages in FB submodules (SMs) occur without an appropriate protection in place. Two strategies are investigated to protect the FB-MMC during the fault and corresponding controllers are designed. The effectiveness of the presented strategies for the prevention of overcurrents and overvoltages, upon non-permanent and permanent faults, and system post-fault restoration are investigated. For completeness, the strategies are also verified by conducting simulations in PSCAD/EMTDC.
13LI Chuanyue Li, QORIA Taoufik, COLAS Frédéric, JUN Liang, WENLONG Ming, GRUSON François, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Coupling influence on the dq impedance stability analysis for the three-phase grid-connected inverter"
MDPI Energies, 9, url,
The dq impedance stability analysis for a grid-connected current-control inverter is based
on the impedance ratio matrix. However, the coupled matrix brings the difficulties to derive its
eigenvalues for the analysis based on the General Nyquist Criterion. If the couplings are ignored for
simplification, the unacceptable errors will present in the analysis. In this paper, the influence of the
couplings on the dq impedance stability analysis is studied. For taking the couplings into account
simply, the determinant-based impedance stability analysis is used. The mechanism between the
determinant of the impedance-ratio matrix and the inverter stability is unveiled. Compared to the
eigenvalues-based analysis, only one determinant rather than two eigenvalue s-function is required
for the stability analysis. One Nyquist plot or polemap can be applied to the determinant for checking
the right-half-plane poles. The accuracy of the determinant-based stability analysis is also checked
by comparing with the state-space stability analysis method. For the stability analysis, the coupling
influence on the current control, phase-locked loop and the grid impedance are studied. The errors
can be 10% in the stability analysis if the couplings are ignored.
"Predictive controller considering electrical constraints: a case example for five-phase induction machines"
IET Electric Power Applications, N°. 13 (8), p. 1079-1088, ISBN DOI: 10.1049/iet-epa.2018.5873, 8, url,
The modern control of power drives involves the consideration of electrical constraints in the regulator strategy,
including voltage/current limits imposed by the power converter and the electrical machine, or magnetic saturation due to
the iron core. This issue has been extensively analysed in conventional three-phase drives but rarely studied in multiphase
ones, despite the current interest of the multiphase technology in high-power density, wide speed range or fault-tolerant
applications. In this paper, a generalised controller using model-based predictive control techniques is introduced. The
proposal is based on two cascaded predictive stages. First, a continuous stage generates the optimal stator current reference
complying with the electrical limits of the drive to exploit its maximum performance characteristic. Then, a finite-control-set
predictive controller regulates the stator current and generates the switching state in the power converter. A five-phase
induction machine with concentrated windings is used as modern high-performance drive case example. This is a common
multiphase drive that can be considered as a system with two frequency-domain control subspaces, where fundamental and
third harmonic currents are orthogonal components involved in the torque production. Experimental results are provided to
analyse the proposed controller, where optimal reference currents are generated and steady/transient states are studied.
"LQR based MIMO-PID controller for the vector control of an underdamped harmonic oscillator"
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 134, 8, url,
Modulated-Demodulated control (or vector control) allows to simultaneously impose amplitude and phase of a resonator. Moreover, the working frequency in the case of discrete-controller is substantially lower than the resonance frequency. However, the design of a such controller can be complex. In this paper, we outline a design directly in the baseband. To do so, the oscillator is modelled as a non-dimensional Multi-Input-Multi-Output system. An optimal control (Linear Quadratic Regulator) framework can then be used to design the controller. Thanks to ad hoc performances criteria, the weighting matrices are systematically specified according to the desired closed-lop time response. The methodology is validated by an experimental results on a plate actuated using piezoelectric patches.
16DARQUES Kévin, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, LE MENACH Yvonnick, BEDDEK Karim
"Study of shaft voltage of a simplified synchronous generator"
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 59, N°. 2, p. 737-744, 8
17JAMII Jannet, ABBES Dhaker, MIMOUNI Mohamed Faouzi
"Joint operation between wind power generation and pumped hydro energy storage in the electricity market"
Wind Engineering, ISBN 10.1177/0309524X19868473, 8, url,
Due to the variable nature of wind resources, the integration of wind power into electric power system has been a relevant issue. Recently, pumped hydro energy storage can be used to balance the unstable output of wind farm, as it can adjust its production to compensate wind power fluctuation. This article investigated the combination of a wind farm and a pumped hydro energy storage facility from the point of view of a generation company in a market environment. A joint operation model between the wind farm and pumped hydro energy storage is proposed. An algorithm of energy management system is proposed to identify the daily operational strategy to be followed in order to (1) minimize the penalty cost resulted from wind-pumped hydro energy storage output imbalances and (2) maximize the daily revenue profit taking into consideration all constraints of joint operation. Simulation results under MATLAB/Simulink® environment are presented and discussed.
18BEN HAMED Mohamed ali, TOLLANCE Thierry, HECQUET Michel, GILLON Frédéric, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm
"Dummy Slots Effect on the Torque Ripple and Electromagnetic Forces for Small Permanent Magnet Brushed DC Motors"
Journal of Electrical & Electronic Systems, Vol. 8, N°. 2, ISBN 2332-0796, 7
19LUZ Rute, CORUJEIRA José, GRISONI Laurent, GIRAUD Frédéric, SILVA José-Luis, VENTURA Rodrigo
"On the Use of Haptic Tablets for UGV Teleoperation in Unstructured Environments: System Design and Evaluation"
IEEE Access, Vol. 7, p. 95431-95442, 7,
Teleoperation of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), particularly for inspection of unstructured and unfamiliar environments still raises important challenges from the point of view of the operator interface. One of these challenges is caused by the fact that all information available to the operator is presented to the operator through a computer interface, providing only a partial view of the robot situation. The majority of existing interfaces provides information using visual, and, less frequently, sound channels. The lack of situation awareness (SA), caused by this partial view, may lead to an incorrect and inefficient response to the current UGV state, usually confusing and frustrating the human operator. For instance, the UGV may become stuck in debris while the operator struggles to move the robot, not understanding the cause of the UGV lack of motion.
20TANG Zuqi, ZHAO Yanpu, REN Zhuoxiang
"Auto-Gauging of Vector Potential by Parallel Sparse Direct Solvers–Numerical Observations"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 55, N°. 6, p. 1-4, ISBN 1941-0069, 6, url,
When using magnetic vector potential (MVP)-based formulations for magnetostatic or eddy-current problems, either gauge conditions specifying the divergence of the MVP or tree gauging by eliminating redundant degrees of freedom of the MVP is usually imposed to ensure uniqueness of solutions. Explicit gauging of the MVP is not always necessary since classical iterative solvers can automatically and implicitly fix the gauge as long as the right-hand side vectors are consistent. Besides iterative solvers, implicit gauging is also observed when using state-of-the-art parallel sparse direct solvers (PSDSs), thanks to the built-in functions of handling null-spaces of either real symmetric positive semi-definite matrix systems or those complex symmetric systems from eddy-current problems. Both static and eddy-current examples are solved by PSDS to demonstrate results of local physical quantities or global quantities such as magnetic energy or joule losses. High-order edge/nodal elements are also considered in our numerical examples and it is observed that PSDS can also easily and correctly handle the delicate discrete null spaces.
21ZHAO Yanpu, TANG Zuqi
"Improved Equilibrated Error Estimates for Open Boundary Magnetostatic Problems Based on Dual A and H Formulations"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 55, N°. 6, p. 1-5, ISBN 1941-0069, 6, url,
Calculating the bounds of global energy is an important issue in computational electromagnetism, which can provide guaranteed results when extracting inductance parameters. In this paper, an improved equilibrated type a posteriori error estimate for open boundary magnetostatic problems is proposed. We derive our error estimator based on vector dual formulations, which can be efficiently solved using parallel sparse direct solvers. The new estimator can provide a sharp and guaranteed estimate of the finite-element spatial discretization error. Moreover, the computational cost is cheaper than using existing equilibrated error estimators. Numerical experiments are carried out to showcase the performance of our error estimator, including the modified TEAM workshop problem 13 and the benchmark IEEJ problem.
22ZHAO Yanpu, TANG Zuqi
"Accurate Extraction of Winding Inductances using Dual Formulations without Source Field Computation"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 55, N°. 6, p. 1-4, ISBN 1941-0069, 6, url,
Dual formulations are accurate in use for computing energy-related global quantities such as inductance and providing upper and lower bounds of the unknown true values of these global parameters, which is not possible if using a single formulation. Since traditional dual formulations result in totally different algebraic matrix equations, people have to develop two different finite element programs and solve the resultant two algebraic equation systems respectively. In this work two practical dual formulations
for open region magnetostatic problems, where the global finite element matrices are exactly the same, are adopted for extracting the winding inductances. Finite element formulation and implementation details are presented. Practical examples having complex windings are solved using the proposed methods to showcase the effectiveness and accuracy. High order FE basis functions are also used to enhance the solution accuracy. The proposed method is highly useful for medium-sized industrial applications by providing guaranteed inductance parameters.
23ZHAO Yanpu, TANG Zuqi
"A Symmetric Field-circuit Coupled Formulation for 3-D Transient Full-wave Maxwell Problems"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 55, N°. 6, p. 1-4, ISBN 1941-0069, 6, url,
In this paper, a symmetric field-circuit coupled finite element method (FEM) for low-frequency (LF) full-wave Maxwell problems using a magnetic vector potential (MVP) formulation is proposed. The resultant fully-discrete coefficient matrix is made symmetric for the first time by introducing the so-called source electric scalar potential (ESP) for solid conductors, where the terminal currents are converted from surface integrations of the current density vectors to volumetric integrations. Numerical examples, including a benchmark capacitor charging problem with external circuit connections, are solved and the numerical results match well with reference solutions. The proposed formulation is useful when analyzing electromagnetic fields with coupled inductive-capacitive effects and external circuit connections.
24HENNERON Thomas, PIERQUIN Antoine, CLENET Stéphane
"Mesh Deformation based on Radial Basis Function Interpolation applied to Low Frequency Electromagnetic Problem"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 6
"An Improved Newton Method Based on Choosing Initial Guess Applied to Scalar Formulation in Nonlinear Magnetostatics"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 55, N°. 6, p. 1-4, ISBN 1941-0069, 6, url,
An improved starting point Newton method applied to 3-D scalar formulation in magnetostatics is proposed in this paper. Compared with the classical Newton method, the inexact-Newton and quasi-Newton methods are reported by testing on a benchmark problem as well as an industrial example. Remarkable convergence acceleration using the proposed strategy is observed, and thus, it significantly
reduces the computational time.
26ZHAO Yanpu, TANG Zuqi
"A Novel Gauged Potential Formulation for 3-D Electromagnetic Field Analysis Including Both Inductive and Capacitive Effects"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 55, N°. 6, ISBN 1941-0069, 6, url,
In this paper, a novel potential formulation for low-frequency (LF) applications taking into account both inductive and capacitive effects but without considering wave propagation is proposed. Both time-domain and frequency-domain formulations are presented.
The resultant fully discrete finite-element matrix is made symmetric by incorporating a gauge condition and also rewriting the current continuity equation. To improve numerical accuracy and computational efficiency, high-order mixed-edge elements and nodal elements are adopted to approximate the vector and scalar unknown variables together with high-order time-stepping schemes. Several numerical examples are solved to validate and showcase the accuracy of the proposed methods. The proposed formulations are stable in use for LF electromagnetic field computations by considering inductive and capacitive effects simultaneously, such as finding the resonant frequencies of wireless power transfer devices.
27KRIM Youssef, ABBES Dhaker, KRIM Saber, MIMOUNI Mohamed Faouzi
"A second‐order sliding‐mode control for a real time emulator of a wind power system synchronized with electrical network"
International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, Vol. 29, N°. 9, p. e12051, ISBN 10.1002/2050-7038.12297, 6, url,
This paper was focused on the implementation of experimental test bench for a wind power generator (WPG) connected to the electrical network. The objectives of this work are to validate the test bench functionality and to investigate in real time a high‐order sliding‐mode control (SMC) scheme applied to control the WPG. This study has three main purposes. The first one is the development of the SMC technique to ensure a control method insensitive against nonlinear behavior of wind systems. The second one is the experimental implementation of this SMC scheme. The third one is a synchronization technique that has been presented in a grid‐connected power inverter to adapt the WPG voltage to the grid voltage. A comparative study between the experimental and simulation results demonstrates the functionality of the test platform and the robustness of the SMC in real time.
28ABDELLI Djamel, NGUYEN Thu-Trang, CLENET Stéphane, CHERIET Ahmed
"Stochastic Metamodel for Probability of Detection Estimation of Eddy-Current Testing Problem in Random Geometry"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 55, N°. 6, ISBN 10.1109/TMAG.2019.2893421, 6,
The calculation of the probability of detection in non-destructive eddy-current testing requires the solution of a stochastic model requiring numerous calls of a numerical model leading to a huge computation time. To reduce this computation time, we propose in this paper to combine either the use of a stochastic metamodel or a mapping which avoids the remeshing step. The stochastic metamodel is constructed using the least-angle regression method. This approach is tested on an axisymmetric problem with six random input paramters which shows its efficiency and its accuracy.
29EL YOUSSEF Mohamad, BENABOU Abdelkader, COOREVITS Thierry, VAN GORP Adrien, CLENET Stéphane, FAVEROLLE Pierre, MIPO Jean-Claude, LAVALLEY Yannick, LECUPPE Thomas
"Punching effect directly on electrical machine stator strips"
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 61, N°. S1, p. S107-S114, 6, url,
An experimental approach is proposed to study the influence of the punching on the magnetic behavior of a stator core strips. Specimens of a non-oriented M330-A35 punched lamination sheet are picked up from a real manufacturing process. The proposed approach is based on the use of two types of specimens; one is a closed magnetic circuit while the second one is split into two parts. Magnetic measurements are performed on both types and compared with those made on specimens cut by WEDM which has a lower impact on the magnetic behavior. The specific purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of punching in presence of an air gap that exists in electrical machines between rotor and stator. Therefore a dedicated device, optimized by FEM simulations, is developed in order to account accurately the air gap.
30JAMIL Meryeme, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane, ARBENZ Laure, MIPO Jean-Claude
"Development and validation of an electrical and magnetic characterization device for massive parallelepiped specimens"
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 61, N°. S1, p. S31-S38, 6, url,
Claw pole machine performances are strongly related to the electromagnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials. These properties are impacted by the manufacturing processes, in a heterogeneous way, as well as by the thermal behavior of the machine and the mechanical stress distribution. Due to the complexity of CP geometry, extracted samples cannot respect the dimensions prescribed in international standards of electric and magnetic measurements. This paper proposes a specific methodology to characterize the electrical conductivity and the magnetic behavior of massive parallelepiped specimens extracted from different locations of a CP rotor.
"Generating controlled localized stimulations on haptic displays by modal superimposition"
Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 449, p. 196-213, 6, url,
In the field of tactile feedback, researchers try to generate localized stimulations on screens. Some solutions such as time reversal or phased array use vibration induced in the screen equipped with piezoelectric ceramics. We propose to use the modal basis to reproduce a specified velocity field on such devices. We explain the theory and propose a methodology to practically synthesize the voltages to achieved a controlled focusing in a given time. Experiments on a simple demonstrator are in good agreement with the theory for various velocity fields and a reduced number of modes.
"Control Strategies for Non-sinusoidal Multiphase PMSM Drives in Faulty Modes under Constraints on Copper Losses and Peak Phase Voltage"
IET Electric Power Applications, Vol. 13, N°. 11, p. 1743-1752, ISBN 1751-8660, 5, url,
In the context of future Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs) with a high number of phases (>7) in integrated drives, this paper proposes several control strategies when multiphase PMSMs with non-sinusoidal back electromotive forces (back-EMFs) operate in healthy and open-circuit faults. In all operation modes, the considered constraint on current is related to the maximum root mean square (RMS) current allowable in one phase of the machine. The constraint on voltage limits the maximum peak value of the phase voltage determined by the DC-bus voltage of the converter. When one or two phases are open-circuited, to maximize torque and respect the constraints, new current references obtained by several proposed methods in rotating and natural frames are imposed to the machine. Due to the non-sinusoidal waveform of back-EMFs and the considered constraints, numerical computations based on analytical formulations are required to obtain maximal torque-speed characteristics, including the flux-weakening operation. The usefulness of the proposed strategies is verified by numerical and experimental results.
"Torque optimization of seven-phase BLDC machines in normal and degraded modes with constraints on current and voltage"
IET Journal Of Engineering, Vol. 2019, N°. 17, p. 3818-3824, ISBN 2051-3305, 5, url,
This paper proposes several easy-to-implement control strategies when seven-phase axial flux brushless DC machines with trapezoidal back electromotive forces operate in normal and faulty modes by taking into account constraints on voltage and current. The constraints are related to the converter and machine design in terms of maximum values of current and voltage. The considered faults are cases in which one or two phases of the machine are open-circuited. Numerical computations based on analytical formulations are applied to obtain torque-speed characteristics, including the flux-weakening operation. The methods determine current references to ensure the torque optimizations while currents and voltages are within their limits. The usefulness of the methods is verified by numerical results.
34ZAIDI Bilel, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir
"Optimization method of CM inductor volume taking into account the magnetic core saturation issues"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 34, N°. 5, p. 4279 - 4291, 5, url
"Model predictive optimal control considering current and voltage limitations: Real-time validation using OPAL-RT technologies and five-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines"
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 158, p. 148-161, ISBN DOI: 10.1016/j.matcom.2018.07.005, 4, url,
Multiphase machines have recently gained interest in the research community for their use in applications where high power density, wide speed range and fault-tolerant capabilities are required. The optimal control of such drives requires the consideration of voltage and current limits imposed by the power converter and the machine. While conventional three-phase drives have been extensively analyzed taking into account such limits, the same cannot be said in the multiphase drives’ case. This paper deals with this issue, where a novel two-stage Model Predictive optimal Control (2S-MPC) technique is presented, and a five-phase permanent magnet synchronous multiphase machine (PMSM) is used as a case example. The proposed method first applies a Continuous-Control-Set Model Predictive Control (CCS-MPC) stage to obtain the optimal real-time stator current reference for given DC-link voltage and stator current limits, exploiting the maximum performance characteristics of the multiphase drive. Then, a Finite-Control-Set Model Predictive Control (FCS-MPC) stage is utilized to generate the switching state in the power converter and force the stator current tracking. An experimental validation of the proposed controller is finally provided using a real-time simulation environment based on OPAL-RT technologies.
36PACE Loris, DEFRANCE Nicolas, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir, DEJAEGER Jean-Claude
"Extraction of Packaged GaN Power Transistors Parasitics Using S-Parameters"
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 66, N°. 6, p. 2583-2588, ISBN 0018-9383, 4, url,
In order to better predict the high frequency switching operation of transistors in power converters, parasitic elements of these devices such as resistances, inductances and capacitances must be accurately evaluated. This paper reports on the characterization of a gallium nitride (GaN) packaged power transistor using S-parameters in order to extract the device parasitics. Because the transistor is packaged, a calibration technique is carried out using specific test fixtures designed on FR4 printed circuit board (PCB) in order to get the S-parameters in the transistor plane from the measurement. The proposed method is suitable for a wide range of power devices. In this work it is applied to an enhancement mode GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT).The impact of junction temperature on drain and source resistances is also evaluated. According to characterization results, equation-based modeling is proposed for the non-linear parameters. The extracted parasitic elements are compared with reference values given by the device manufacturer.
"The Perception of Ultrasonic Square Reductions of Friction with Variable Sharpness and Duration"
IEEE Transactions on Haptics, Vol. 12, N°. 2, p. 179-188, ISBN 2329-4051, 4, url,
The human perception of square ultrasonicmodulation of the finger-surface friction was investigated duringactive tactile exploration by using short frictional cues of varyingduration and sharpness. In a first experiment, we asked participantsto discriminate the transition time and duration of short squareultrasonic reductions of friction. They proved very sensitive todiscriminate millisecond differences in these two parameters withthe average psychophysical thresholds being 2.3–2.4 ms for bothparameters. A second experiment focused on the perception ofsquare friction reductions with variable transition times anddurations. We found that for durations of the stimulation largerthan 90 ms, participants often perceived three or four edges whenonly two stimulations were presented while they consistently felttwo edges for signals shorter than 50 ms. A subsequent analysisof the contact forces induced by these ultrasonic stimulationsduring slow and fast active exploration showed that two identicalconsecutive ultrasonic pulses can induce significantly differentfrictional dynamics especially during fast motion of the finger.These results confirm the human sensitivity to transient frictionalcues and suggest that the human perception of square reductions offriction can depend on their sharpness and duration as well as onthe speed of exploration.
"Influence of a CVT on the Fuel Consumption of a Parallel Medium-Duty Electric Hybrid Truck"
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 158, N°. Avril 209, p. 120-129, ISBN DOI: 10.1016/j.matcom.2018.07.002, 4
39CREUSE Emmanuel, LE MENACH Yvonnick, NICAISE Serge, PIRIOU Francis, TITTARELLI Roberta
"Two guaranteed equilibrated error estimators for Harmonic formulations in eddy current problems"
Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 3, url,
In this paper a guaranteed equilibrated error estimator is developed for the 3D harmonic magnetodynamic problem of Maxwell’s system. This system is recasted in the classical A-phi potential formulation and solved by the Finite Element method. The error estimator is built starting from the A-phi numerical solution by a local flux reconstruction technique. Its equivalence with the error in the energy norm is established. A comparison of this estimator with an equilibrated error estimator already developed through a complementary problem points out the advantages and drawbacks of these two estimators. In particular, an analytical benchmark test illustrates the obtained theoretical results and a physical benchmark test shows the efficiency of these two estimators.
40MEKRI Fatiha, BEN ELGHALI Seifeddine, CHARPENTIER Jean-Frédéric, KESTELYN Xavier, BENBOUZID Mohamed
"A New Control Strategy of 5-Phase PM Motor under Open-Circuited Phase Based on High Order Sliding Mode and Current References Real-Time Generation"
Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol. 47, N°. 3, p. 261-274, ISBN DOI: 10.1080/15325008.2019.1580800, 3,
The high quality of electrical power in high power and high reliability applications is a crucial necessity even under fault mode function. However, in these conditions, the quality of the torque is a key feature. To overcome this problem, the multiphase permanent magnet (PM) motors seems to be a very attractive choice. In order to highlight the robustness and reliability of this technology, this paper investigates the control of a five-phase PM motor under an open circuited phase fault conditions. Moreover, a High Order Sliding Mode (HOSM) controller combined to an optimal reference current generation is tested and compared to a PID controller under fault mode conditions. This original control strategy is proposed for faulted conditions. Compared to classical fault tolerant control, this strategy allows a better dynamic tracking of the non-sinusoidal reference currents and leads to a smooth torque with minimal losses even in severe fault conditions. To validate the proposed control strategy, simulation, and experimental results are presented and discussed.
41GONG Jinlin, ZAHR Hussein, SEMAIL Eric, TRABELSI Mohamed, SCUILLER Franck, ASLAN Bassel
"Design Considerations of Five-Phase Machine with Double p/3p Polarity"
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 34, N°. 1, p. pp12-24, ISBN DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2018.2851287, 3, url,
In the context of traction drives with required torque transient capabilities and a classically wide flux weakening speed range, this paper gives design considerations of a particular Double-Polarity (DP) five-phase machine. Beyond its intrinsic fault tolerance due its five phases, it specificity is the ability to develop torques of comparable values under three kinds of supply: with only first, third or both first and third sinusoidal currents. This property, due to first (E1) and third (E3) harmonic electromotive forces (emf) of comparable values, gives more degrees of freedom for the control of the machine. Unlike three-phase sinusoidal machine, flux weakening is no more the unique solution when maximum voltage is reached. Thanks to the extra degrees of freedom in this kind of machines, more possibilities for the control of the torque and current supply can be applied. At first, elements for the choice of slots/poles combination of such DP machines are given. Then, in case of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (IPMSM), possible adaptations of the rotor are proposed in order to bring the double p/3p polarity property. The last design criterion considered is the level of eddy-current losses, important at high frequencies. For proof of the concept effectiveness, a prototype with a five-phase fractional-slot concentrated winding of 40 slots and 16/48 poles is presented with results from experimental set-up and Finite Element modeling. A comparison with equivalent no-fault-tolerant three-phase 24 slots /16 poles machines is also carried out
42LHOMME Walter, TROVAO Joao
"Zero-emission casting-off and docking maneuvers for series hybrid excursion ships"
Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 184, p. 427-435, 3
43AL EIT Moustafa, CLENET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas, GUYOMARCH Frédéric
"Exploitation of Independent Stator and Rotor Geometrical Periodicities in Electrical Machines Using the Schur Complement"
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), 2
44BUIRE Jérôme, COLAS Frédéric, DIEULOT Jean-Yves, DE ALVARO GARCIA Léticia, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Confidence level optimization of DG piecewise affine controllers in distribution grids"
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2, url,
Distributed generators (DG) reactive powers are controlled to mitigate voltage overshoots in distribution grids with stochastic power production and consumption. Classical DGs controllers may embed piecewise affine laws with dead-band terms. Their settings are usually tuned using a decentralized method which uses local data and optimizes only the DG node behavior. It is shown that when short-term forecasts of stochastic powers are Gaussian and the grid model is assumed to be linear, nodes voltages can either be approximated by Gaussian or sums of truncated Gaussian variables. In the latter case, the voltages probability density functions (pdf) that are needed to compute the overvoltage risks or DG control effort are less straightforward than for normal distributions. These pdf are used into a centralized optimization problem which tunes all DGs control parameters. The objectives consist in maximizing the confidence levels for which voltages and powers remain in prescribed domains and minimizing voltage variances and DG efforts. Simulations on a real distribution grid model show that the truncated Gaussian representation is relevant and that control parameters can easily be updated even when extra DGs are added to the grid. The DG reactive power can be reduced down to 50 % or node voltages variances can be reduced down to 30 %.
"Robust Control Design of MMC-HVDC Systems using Multivariable Optimal Guaranteed Cost approach"
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 2, url,
The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) represents the important technological innovation that emerged among the diverse available topologies of VSC and is avowedly the most suitable solution for converters in HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) transmission and MTDC (Multi-Terminal Direct Current) grids. Special focus is given through this paper to the dynamic performance of an MMC-based, back-to-back HVDC system. Using an optimal guaranteed cost control theory, a robust control approach is designed in order to reject the impact of the unmodeled uncertainty in the AC side of the MMC converter. For this aim, a small-signal state-space linear model is derived for the control design of an advanced local controller of each MMC station. Furthermore, a new optimal guaranteed cost controller is proposed based on convex optimization problem using LMI optimization theory. The proposed approach leads to regulate simultaneously the AC grid and differential currents as well as total stored energy per phase in abc frame. To ensure the energy balancing between upper and lower arm per phase, an outer control loop is used to control the energy difference per phase between upper and lower arms of MMC. For the MMC linked to HVDC system, the active power reference input is generated through an outer classical DC voltage controller. This combined control strategy between classic and advanced robust regulation methods allows exploiting the advantages of both control methods. Effectiveness of the proposed optimal robust control strategy for back-to-back MMC-HVDC system is evaluated across accurate and skillful simulation study under Matlab/SimPowerSystem environment.
46LI Kaibo, HAN Shoulaing, CUI Shumei, BOUSCAYROL Alain
"Sizing of Modular Cascade Machines System for Electric Vehicles"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 68, N°. 2, p. 1278-1287, 2
"Real-Time Energy Management of Battery/Supercapacitor Electric Vehicles Based on an Adaptation of Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 68, N°. 1, p. 203 - 212, 1, url,
The combination of batteries and supercapacitors is promising in electric vehicles context to minimize battery aging. Such a system needs an energy management strategy (EMS) that distributes energy in real-time for real driving cycles. Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP) is widely used in adaptive forms to develop real-time optimization-based EMSs thanks to its analytical approach. This methodology leads to an off-line optimal solution which requires an extra adaptive mechanism for real-time applications. In this paper, a simplification of the PMP method is proposed to avoid the adaptation mechanism in real-time. This new EMS is compared to well-known conventional strategies by simulation. Furthermore, experimental results are provided to assess the real-time operation of the proposed EMS. Simulation and experimental results prove the advantages of the proposed approach by a reduction up to 50% of the batteries rms current on a real-world driving cycle compared to a battery-only EV.
48ZHANG Haibo, GRUSON François, FLOREZ Diana, SAUDEMONT Christophe
"Overvoltage Limitation Method of an Offshore Wind Farm with DC Series Parallel Collection Grid"
IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, Vol. 10, N°. 1, p. 204 - 213, 1, url
1VERMEERSCH Pierre, GRUSON François, GUILLAUD Xavier, MERLIN Michael Marc Claude, EGROT Philippe
"Energy and Director Switches Commutation Controls for the Alternate Arm Converter"
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 12, url
2LI Hailin, TANG Zuqi, WANG Shuhong, ZHU Jianguo
"Multiscale modeling of magnetic distribution of ribbon magnetic cores"
CES Transactions on Electrical Machines and Systems, Vol. 2, N°. 4, p. 425 - 429, 12, url
"Stabilised reduced-order model of a non-linear eddy current problem by a Gappy-POD approach"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 12
"Models of AC and DC cable systems for technical and economic evaluation of offshore wind farm connection"
International Journal of Electrical Energy, Vol. 6, N°. 2, 12,
Accurate cable modeling is a recurrent issue for electric architecture evaluation and design, especially in specific contexts, like offshore wind farms.
This paper proposes optimal analytical cable models for the technical and economic assessment of offshore wind generation systems.
Proposed models evaluate the electrical and thermal behaviors of cables, as components of the complete offshore wind generation transmission system. The cost effectiveness of the latter is assessed by considering both CAPEX and OPEX contributions.
A comparison with published models is also presented, and illustrated on various cable designs. Among others, we can see that the greater the section, the more interesting the simplification model is. Also, we checked that the model proposed by Brakelmann is correct in DC. For all other cases, the model, based on standards, is preferred.
The proposed paper goes beyond cables modeling by describing an assessment method based on specific cables modeling, allowing the choice of cables within a holistic assessment tool bringing decision support regarding optimal design of offshore wind farm grid connection.
A system assessment based on the proposed model is presented, for a typical HVAC architecture.
5YAN Xingyu, ABBES Dhaker, FRANCOIS Bruno
"Development of a Tool for Urban Microgrid Optimal Energy Planning and Management"
Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory , Elsevier, Vol. 89, p. 64-81, 12, url,
Small-sized variable renewable energy sources (RES) live a large-scale development in urban electrical systems. They increase local high dynamic unbalancing and then can create instabilities on the inertia response. Thus, setting an adequate operating reserve (OR) power to compensate the unpredicted imbalance between RES generation and consumption is essential for power system security. Indeed, effective calculation and dispatching of OR considering inaccurate forecast of both RES and load demand can provide substantial cost reductions. Thus, to facilitate the energy management and system optimization in an urban microgrid (MG), a user-friendly tool for Energy Management System and Operational Planning has been developed. The tool provides a complete set of user-friendly graphical interfaces to study the details of photovoltaic (PV) and batteries, load demand, as well as micro gas turbines (MGTs). Furthermore, this energy management system allows system operators to properly model RES uncertainty. In addition, it could assist operators for the day-ahead energy management with an efficient information system and an intelligent management.
6KRIM Youssef, ABBES Dhaker, KRIM Saber, MIMOUNI Mohamed Faouzi
"Intelligent droop control and power management of active generator for ancillary services under grid instability using fuzzy logic technology"
Control Engineering Practice, Vol. 81, p. 215-230, 12, url,
In this paper, a control and power supervisor for a flexible operation of a Renewable Distributed Generator (RDG) is introduced. This RDG consists of a combination of a wind system and a hybrid storage system made up of Batteries (BT) and Super-Capacitors (SC). RDG is associated with a load and a fluctuating grid to form an Active Generator (AG). According to the grid fluctuation, AG can operate in a grid-connected and standalone mode. The objective of this work is to investigate a novel control strategy for AG integrated into the grid in order to maintain its voltage and frequency in an allowable range and to ensure the continuity of the power supply in case of a grid fault. The structure of the proposed control strategy consists of a Fuzzy Logic Supervisor (FLS), an adaptive Fuzzy Logic Droop Control (FLDC) and a Fuzzy Logic Islanding Detection (FLID). FLS is developed to manage the power flows between the storage devices by choosing the optimal operating mode, thereby ensuring the grid stability and the continuous supply of the load by maintaining the state of charge of SC and BT at acceptable levels and to reduce stresses on BT and improve their life cycle. FLID is used to detect de standalone mode in case of grid failure. Finally, FLDC is used to control the active and reactive powers exchanged with the grid, ensuring its stability by maintaining its frequency and its voltage in optimal margins. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is validated by simulation results and compared with a generalized control technique.
"Integrated traction / charge / air compression supply using 3-phase split-windings motor for electric vehicles"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 33, N°. 11, p. 10003-10012, ISBN doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2018.2810542, 11, url,
High cost, no-ideal driving range and charge time limit electric vehicle market share. Facing these challenges, an integrated motor drive/battery charger system has been proposed by Valeo. A further advancement, based on this system, is present in this paper; for the first time, the integration of traction, charging and air-compressor supply modes is proposed and tested by real-time experimentation. This integrated system is expected to increase the vehicle component compactness and power, therefore potentially reduce the cost and battery charging time. An overall and unique control scheme is detailed to achieve the three main operating modes: traction, charging and air-compressor supply modes. The real-time experimentation results show the system feasibility.
8HUSSAIN Sajid, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane, LOWTHER David A.
"Temperature Dependence in the Jiles-Atherton Model for Non-Oriented Electrical Steels: An Engineering Approach"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 54, N°. 11, 11, url,
High operating temperatures modify the magnetic behavior of ferromagnetic cores which may affect the performance of electrical machines. Therefore, a temperature-dependent material model is necessary to model the electrical machine behavior more accurately during the design process. Physics-inspired hysteresis models, such as the Jiles-Atherton (JA) model, seem to be promising candidates to incorporate temperature effects and can be embedded in finite element simulations. In this paper, we have identified the JA model parameters from measurements for a temperature range experienced by non-oriented electrical steels in electrical machines during their operation. Based on the analysis, a parameter reduction has been performed. The proposed approach simplifies the identification procedures by reducing the number of model parameters and does not require any additional material information, such as the Curie temperature. The resulting temperature-dependent JA model is validated against measurements, and the results are in good agreement.
9FREYTES Julian, AKKARI Samy, RAULT Pierre, BELHAOUANE Moez, GRUSON François, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Dynamic Analysis of MMC-Based MTDC Grids: Use of MMC Energy to Improve Voltage Behavior"
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 9, url,
This article deals with DC voltage dynamics of Multi-Terminal HVDC grids with energy-based controlled Mo\-dular Multilevel Converters (MMC) adopting the commonly used power-voltage droop control technique for power flow dispatch. Special focus is given on the energy management strategies of the MMCs and their ability to influence on the DC voltage dynamics. First, it is shown that decoupling the MMC energy from the DC side by controlling the energy to a fixed value, regardless of the DC voltage level, causes large and undesired DC voltage transient after a sudden power flow change. Second, the Virtual Capacitor Control technique is implemented in order to improve the results, however, its limitations on droop-based MTDC grids are highlighted. Finally, a novel energy management approach is proposed to improve the performance of the later method. These studies are performed with detailed MMC models suitable for the use of linear analysis techniques. The derived MTDC models are validated against time-domain simulations using detailed EMT MMC models with 400 sub-modules per arm.
10AL EIT Moustafa, CLENET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas
"Finite-Element Model Reduction of Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Machines by Exploitation of Geometrical Periodicity"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 54, N°. 9, 9,
This paper presents a methodology that allows taking advantage of the geometrical periodicity of electrical machines together with the modeling of rotor motion. It enables by means of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to reduce the large-scale system obtained from the finite-element model to several smaller independent subsystems, allowing a shortening of the computational time. Due to DFT properties, the computational time can be more reduced especially when we consider the inter-dependence of the spectral components under either balanced or unbalanced supply condition. In addition, a further reduction is possible in the case of balanced regimes where the distribution of the eventual numerical solution is governed by a limited number of prevailing harmonics.
11MOHAMODHOSEN Bilquis, GILLON Frédéric, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, CHEVALLIER Loïc
"Topology Optimisation using Nonlinear Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), 9, url
"New Electrical Inversed-Series Connection for Even-Phase Symmetrical Motors"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 33, N°. 9, p. 7938-7957, ISBN DOI : 10.1109/TPEL.2017.2766359, 9, url,
This paper presents an extension of previous methods in order to find electrical series-connections between multiphase machines allowing the independent control of each one of them. These new electrical series-connections explore the symmetrical disposition of the phases of even-multiphase machines, allowing the inversed connection of some of the phases, different from the direct connections as it was previously done. Therefore, electrical series-connections of two symmetrical 6-phase or of four symmetrical 10-phase machines are now possible. Besides that, this new solution ensures a natural independent control of permanent magnet synchronous machines even if the back-electromotive forces generated by the rotor are not sinusoidal, without need of special machine conception or supplementary control strategy. This control independency is mathematically proved using the decomposition of multiphase machines in fictitious diphase and homopolar machines. Experimental results are presented to show the functioning and the advantages of this new coupling for two symmetrical 6-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines.
"Energy Management in fuel-cell/battery vehicles - Key Issues Identified in the IEEE Vehicular Technology Society Motor Vehicle Challenge 2017"
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magzine, Vol. 13, N°. 3, p. pp. 144-151, ISBN DOI: 10.1109/MVT.2018.2837154, 9
"Improving the PAD actuator performances by vector control"
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 23, N°. 6, p. 2920-2927, 9,
In this paper, we address the problem of pull out and stalling of the vector control of the piezo-actuator drive. The model presented reveals the similarities with synchronous machine and therefore we propose the vector control to solve the problem and to enhance its performances. The implementation using a position sensor is tested. Experimental results show that the vector control avoids pull out and reduces dramatically the voltage applied to achieve the same performances. Speed up to 2.5 times the maximum rated speed at full load could be achieved without loss of synchronization.
"Finite-time stabilisation of some power transmission systems"
Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control ( SAGE Journals), p. 1-16, 8, url,
This paper presents the finite time stabilisation strategy of two problems: the first one is the control of the high voltage direct current based on voltage source converter, while the second is the control of the multi-terminal direct current transmission systems. Subject to finite-time control design strategy, a linear and nonlinear dynamic model are derived based on the state-space description. Furthermore, continuous or discontinuous finite-time feedbacks are proposed to ensure the tracking of the output variables and to enhance the stability of the studied high voltage direct current system. In addition, the proposed control strategy is extended for the multi-terminal direct current system. A comparative study between various approaches (Proportional-Integral control, continuous or discontinuous stabilizing finite-time controllers and control by backstepping) is presented and shows that the finite-time continuous feedback gives an excellent transient response.
16ZHANG Jian, LEONTIDIS Vlasios, DAZIN Antoine, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DELARUE Philippe, CAIGNAERT Guy, PIRIOU Francis, LIBAUX Antoine
"Canal Lock Variable Speed Hydropower Turbine Design and Control"
IET Renewable Energy Generation, 8, url
17KRIM Youssef, ABBES Dhaker, KRIM Saber, MIMOUNI Mohamed Faouzi
"A flexible control strategy of a renewable active generator to participate in system services under grid faults"
International transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, 8, url,
This paper was interested in flexible control of an active generator (AG) that includes a wind turbine, battery‐supercapacitors hybrid storage system, and loads. This AG can operate according to grid stability in islanded, synchronization, and grid‐connected modes. The developed control strategy comprises two principal control tasks: the first one is a two‐layer power management algorithm (PMA). The response of two‐layer PMA enables to detect the islanding mode in case of grid fault and to monitor the renewable power generation into nine operating modes according to the state‐of‐charge of each storage system. The second task is droop control. This droop control aims to reduce grid voltage and frequency variations. It controls exchanged powers with grid to ensure its stability. It also ensures a continuous supply of load in case of grid fault. The system is simulated using MATLAB software, and results are provided in order to show the feasibility of this control strategy.
18BORSENBERGER Marc, BENABOU Abdelkader, BAUDOUIN Cyrille, BIGOT Régis, FAVEROLLE Pierre, MIPO Jean-Claude
"Characterization of massive magnetic parts with a dedicated device"
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 57, N°. 4, p. 457-472, 8, url,
Magnetic parts are usually composed of a stack of electrical steel laminations to reduce the eddy current losses. However, for cost reasons or for specific applications the magnetic core can be made from massive steel and thus manufactured with adapted processes such as forging. Such process may lead to inhomogeneous and degraded magnetic properties. Therefore, this study proposes a specific device for characterizing magnetic properties of samples which are to be representative of a massive part. The measure is based on the Faraday’s equation to determine the magnetic flux density and the Hall effect to estimate the magnetic field inside the sample. Practically this is realized with classical components such as Hall probes, a secondary winding and an electromagnet device. However their combination is unique to perform magnetic characterization on massive samples, which are less affected by the sampling technique and may have anisotropic properties. The device is dimensioned thanks to FE-Simulation and validated according repeatability, sensitivity and trueness analysis. Eventually the characterization is performed on samples with different material parameters showing the effect of the grain size on the specific losses. The expected effect of the grain flow on magnetic properties is however not proven yet.
19KANCHEV Hristiyan, HINOV Nikolay, GILEV Bogdan, FRANCOIS Bruno
"Modelling and Control by Neural Network of Electric Vehicle Traction System"
20KRIM Youssef, ABBES Dhaker, KRIM Saber, MIMOUNI Mohamed Faouzi
"Power management and second-order sliding mode control for standalone hybrid wind energy with battery energy storage system"
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering, ISBN https://doi.org/10.1177/0959651818784320, 7, url,
The purpose of this article is to provide a high performance control of a renewable distributed generator to guarantee an electric power quality and jointly reduce the mechanical stress despite any possible uncertainties such as the random nature of wind speed, the presence of parameters uncertainties, and external perturbations acting on the system (sudden load variation). The renewable distributed generator integrating a wind generator associated with a batteries module is considered as an energy storage device and a variable load. The proposed method is designed by a power management supervisor and a sliding mode control technique. First, the power management supervisor is used to monitor the power flows transferred between the different system devices depending on the load variation and on the intermittency of wind production. In fact, it enables to ensure the balance at the continuous, Direct Current (DC) bus between the powers supplied by the renewable distributed generator and those demanded by the load. In addition, it prevents batteries from exceeding its maximum or minimum state of charge (SOCbat) by keeping it at an acceptable level [30%, 90%]. Second, a second-order sliding mode control based on the super-twisting algorithm is suggested to control the two subsystems (generator side and load side converters). The main target of the first one is to extract the maximum wind power taking into account the parameter variations and the fluctuating nature of wind. The second one is to investigate a second-order sliding mode control of active and reactive load power quantities, which provides better results in terms of attenuation of the harmonics present in the load voltage and current while considering the sudden load variations. In addition, a proportional–integral controller is also designed and simulated to establish a comparison framework. According to the simulation results, the second-order sliding mode control successfully deals with the nonlinearity of the renewable distributed generator compared with the proportional–integral performance.
"Matrix Interpolation based Reduced Order Modelling of a Levitation device with Eddy Current effects"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 54, N°. 6, 6
22CAMILLIERI Brigitte, BUENO Marie-Ange, FABRE Marie, JUAN Benjamin, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, MOUCHNINO Laurence
"From finger friction and induced vibrations to brain activation: Tactile comparison between real and virtual textile fabrics"
Tribology International, N°. 126, p. 283-296, ISBN https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2018.05.031, 5,
The objective is to compare the tactile rendering of real and virtual textile surfaces. A grooved woven (twill) and
a hairy fabric (velvet) were studied. The virtual fabrics were simulated with a tactile device. The comparison was
done by measuring the finger interaction in terms of coefficient of friction (COF) and induced vibrations, and
brain activation by electroencephalography (EEG). EEG showed that the real and virtual twill fabrics are close,
contrary to real and virtual velvets. The finger friction showed that for both fabrics the rendering of virtual
compared to real fabrics is very good in terms of COF, low in terms of finger induced vibrations in high fre-
quencies, but differs for the velvet texture for low frequencies.
"Comparison of main magnetic force computation methods for noise and vibration assessment in electrical machines"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 5, url,
This paper presents a comparison of several methods to compute the magnetic forces experienced by the stator teeth of electrical machines. In particular, the comparison focuses on the virtual work principle (VWP)-based nodal forces and the Maxwell tensor (MT) applied on different surfaces. The VWP is set as the reference. The magnetic field is computed either with finite element analysis or with the semi-analytical subdomain method (SDM). First, the magnetic saturation in iron cores is neglected (linear B-H curve). Then, the saturation effect is discussed in a second part. Homogeneous media are considered and all simulations are performed in 2-D. The link between the slot's magnetic flux and the tangential force harmonics is also highlighted. The comparison is performed on the stator of a surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous machine. While the different methods disagree on the local distribution of the magnetic forces at the stator surface, they give similar results concerning the integrated forces per tooth, referred as lumped forces. This conclusion is mitigated for saturated cases: the time harmonics are correctly computed with any of the presented lumped force methods but the amplitude of each harmonic is different between methods. Nonetheless, the use of the SDM remains accurate with MT in the air gap even with saturation for design and diagnostic of electromagnetic noise in electrical machines. However, for more accurate studies based on the local magnetic pressure, the VWP is strongly recommended.
24ČERMÁK Martin, HECHT Frédéric, TANG Zuqi, VOHRALÍK Martin
"Adaptive inexact iterative algorithms based on polynomial-degree-robust a posteriori estimates for the Stokes problem"
Numerische Mathematik, Vol. 138, N°. 4, p. 1027–1065, 4, url,
In this paper, we develop adaptive inexact versions of iterative algorithms applied to finite element discretizations of the linear Stokes problem. We base our developments on an equilibrated stress a posteriori error estimate distinguishing the different error components, namely the discretization error component, the (inner) algebraic solver error component, and possibly the outer algebraic solver error component for algorithms of the Uzawa type. We prove that our estimate gives a guaranteed upper bound on the total error, as well as a polynomial-degree-robust local efficiency, and this on each step of the employed iterative algorithm. Our adaptive algorithms stop the iterations when the corresponding error components do not have a significant influence on the total error. The developed framework covers all standard conforming and conforming stabilized finite element methods on simplicial and rectangular parallelepipeds meshes in two or three space dimensions and an arbitrary algebraic solver. Implementation into the FreeFem++ programming language is invoked and numerical examples showcase the performance of our a posteriori estimates and of the proposed adaptive strategies. As example, we choose here the unpreconditioned and preconditioned Uzawa algorithm and the preconditioned minimum residual algorithm, in combination with the Taylor–Hood discretization.
"POD-Based Reduced-Order Model of an Eddy-Current Levitation Problem"
Scientific Computing in Electrical Engineering. Mathematics in Industry, Vol. 28, 4
26DAMING Zhou, NGUYEN Thu-Trang, BREAZ Elena, ZHAO Dongdong, CLENET Stéphane, GAO Fei
"Global parameters sensitivity analysis and development of a two-dimensional real-time model of proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells"
Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 162, p. 276-292, 4
27MORIN Juliette, COLAS Frédéric, DIEULOT Jean-Yves, GRENARD Sébastien, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Coordinated control of active distribution networks to help a transmission system in emergency situation"
Energy Systems, 4, url,
This paper addresses the relevance of using reactive power from Medium Voltage (MV) networks to support the voltages of a High Voltage (HV) rural network in real-time. The selection and analysis of different optimal coordination strategies between the HV and several MV grids is investigated. The algorithms will control the reactive powers that can flow between HV/MV networks after a request from the Transmission Network Operator in case of an emergency situation such as a line outage. From a case study, the relevance of the coordination is enlightened and recommendations are given on how to tune and to combine the optimal algorithms with the advanced Volt Var Controllers of the distribution grids.
"Electro-kinematical simulation for flexible energetic studies of railway systems"
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 65, N°. 4, p. 3592-3600, 4,
Simulation is a valuable tool to evaluate energy consumptions and design of railway systems. The system limitations have an important influence on the system behavior and must be taken into account in the simulation. Especially, the electro-mechanical limitations have an impact on the kinematical behavior. However, such limitations are often neglected in classical studies. This paper deals with the development of an adaptive electro-kinematical simulation to adapt the kinematical behavior according to the system’s limitations. A flexible simulation tool is obtained by taking into account electrical, mechanical, and kinematical limitations. This tool is experimentally validated on a real railway track. It is then used to study solutions to increase the transport capacity of a subway system, even when limitations occur.
29BRISSET Stéphane, TRAN Tuan-Vu
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 37, N°. 2, p. 617-629, 4,
A multiobjective branch and bound method is presented and applied to the bi-objective combinatorial optimization of a safety transformer. New criteria are proposed for the branching and discarding. They are based on the Pareto dominance and contribution metric. The comparison with exhaustive enumeration and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm confirms the solutions. It appears that exact and approximate methods are both very sensitive to their control parameters.
30DENG Siyang, BRISSET Stéphane, CLENET Stéphane
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 37, N°. 2, p. 704-717, 4,
This paper compares different probabilistic optimization methods dealing with uncertainties. Reliability-Based Design Optimization is presented as well as various approaches to calculate the probability of failure. They are compared in terms of precision and number of evaluations on mathematical and electromagnetic design problems to highlight the most effective methods.
31BELGRAND Thierry, LEMAITRE Régis, BENABOU Abdelkader, BLASZKOWSKI Jonathan, WANG Chaoyong
"Thin grain oriented electrical steel for PWM voltages fed magnetic cores"
AIP Advances, Vol. 8, N°. 047611, 4, url,
This paper reports on performances of high permeability grain oriented electrical steel when used in association with power electronic switching devices. Loss measurement results obtained from the Epstein test, using sinusoidal or various PWM voltages in medium frequency range, show that for both studied thicknesses (HGO 0.23mm and HGO 0.18mm), comparing performances at a fixed induction level between the various situations may not be the most convenient method. The effect of magnetic domain refinement has been investigated. After having shown the interest of lowering the thickness, an alternative way of looking at losses is proposed that may help to design the magnetic core when it comes to the matter of reducing size in considering frequency and magnetization levels.
"Fast determination of the optimal control parameters of a switched reluctance machine using space mapping technique"
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 56, N°. S1, p. 83-96, ISBN 10.3233/JAE-172281, 3,
Transient simulations of models are required for the study of several phenomena and calculation of some physical quantities. For instance, in the case of a switched reluctance machine (SRM), conducting transient simulations allows the calculation of electromagnetic torque ripple. This can be very time consuming, especially when using an iterative optimization algorithm to smooth the developed electromagnetic torque. In this paper, Output Space Mapping Proportional (OSMP) and Manifold Mapping (MM) are presented as a solution to accomplish a fast determination of the optimal control parameters of a SRM in order to improve its performance. A description of the considered optimization …problem is also provided, along with a detailed presentation of the coarse and fine models used. Finally, optimization results are presented, analyzed and validated using finite element-based model as well as measurements on the SRM prototype.
33MONTIER Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane, GOURSAUD Benjamin
"Robust Model Order Reduction of an Electrical Machine at Startup through Reduction Error Estimation"
International Journal of Numerical Modelling, Vol. 31, N°. 2, 3,
In the field of electrical machines, the finite element method provides accurate results but requires a high computational cost to perform, with sometimes weeks of computations. Therefore, model order reduction methods such as the proper orthogonal decomposition combined with the discrete empirical interpolation method are able to speed up the solution of the finite element problem. To use the obtained results for predictive computations, an error estimator is required. However, the different estimators found in the literature do not apply to our problem. Therefore, a simple error indicator that can be applied to a wide range of problems is proposed in this paper.
"Experimental Investigation of Inverter Open-Circuit Fault Diagnosis for Bi-Harmonic Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Drive"
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, Vol. 6, N°. 1, p. 339-351, ISBN DOI: 10.1109/JESTPE.2017.2719634, 3, url,
This paper proposes a procedure that is suitable for experimental investigation of real-time open-switch and open-phase faults diagnosis of a five-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) feeding a five-phase bi-harmonic Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (5-Φ B-PMSM). The algorithm is based on the specific characteristics of multiphase machines, which allows inverter fault detection with sufficient robustness of the algorithm in the presence of fundamental and third harmonic components. Firstly, the inverter fault effects analysis is achieved in the characteristic subspaces of the five-phase PMSM. Specificities that are interesting for the elaboration of a real-time Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) process are highlighted. Original and particular algorithms are used for an accurate two-dimensional normalized fault vector extraction in a defined fault reference frame. This frame is dedicated only for fault detection and identification. To ensure the high immunity of the FDI process against transient states, a particular normalization procedure is applied. The normalized diagnostic signals are formulated from the defined frame and others variables derived from the reference and measured currents. Simulation and experimental results of open-switch and open-phase faults are provided to validate the proposed algorithm.
"An Accurate Third-order Normal Form Approximation for Power System Nonlinear Analysis"
IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 33, N°. Issue 2, p. 2128 - 2139, ISBN doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2017.2737462, 3, url,
The inclusion of higher-order terms in Small-Signal (Modal) analysis has been an intensive research topic in nonlinear power system analysis. The inclusion of 2nd order terms with the Method of Normal Forms (MNF) has been well developed and investigated, overcoming the linear conventional small-signal methods used in the power system control and stability analysis. However, application of the MNF has not yet been extended to include 3rd order terms in a mathematically accurate form to account for nonlinear dynamic stability and dynamic modal interactions. Due to the emergence of larger networks and the long transmission line with high impedance, modern grids exhibit predominant nonlinear oscillations and existing tools have to be upgraded to cope with this new situation. In this paper, fundamentals of Normal Form Theory along with a review of existing tools based on this theory is firstly presented. Secondly, a new formulation of MNF based on a third-order transformation of the system's dynamic approximation is proposed and nonlinear indexes are proposed to make possible to give information on the contribution of nonlinearities to the system stability and on the presence of significant 3rd order modal interactions. The induced benefits of the proposed method are compared to those afforded by existing MNFs. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a standard test system, the IEEE 2-area 4-generator system, and results given by the conventional linear small-signal and existing MNFs are compared to the proposed approach. The applicability of the proposed MNF to larger networks with more complex models has been evaluated on the New England New York 16 machine 5 area system.
"An Experimental Assessment of Open-Phase Fault-Tolerant Virtual Vector Based Direct Torque Control in Five-Phase Induction Motor Drives"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 33, N°. 3, p. 2774-2784, ISBN DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2017.2711531, 3, url,
Direct torque control (DTC) has been recently used for the development of high performance five-phase induction motor (IM) drives, where normal operation of the system has been usually considered and the ability of DTC to manage the situation has been analyzed in comparison with different rotor field-oriented control (RFOC) strategies. The exploitation of fault-tolerant capabilities is also an interesting issue in multiphase machines, where the utility of RFOC controllers has been stated when the open-phase fault operation is considered. In this paper, the performance of DTC and RFOC controllers based on proportional resonant regulators and predictive control techniques is compared when an open-phase fault appears in a five-phase IM drive. Experimental tests are provided to compare the performance of the system using these control alternatives.
37EL BECHARI Reda, BRISSET Stéphane, CLENET Stéphane, MIPO Jean-Claude
"Enhanced Meta-model based Optimization under Constraints using Parallel Computations"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 54, N°. 3, 3,
Meta-models proved to be a very efficient strategy for optimization of expensive black-box models, e.g. Finite Element simulation for electromagnetic devices. It enables to reduce the computational burden for optimization purposes. Kriging is a popular method to build meta-model. Its statistical properties were firstly used in efficient global optimization for unconstrained problems. Afterwards many extensions were introduced in the literature to deal with constrained optimization. This paper presents a comparative study of some infill criteria for constraints handling and a new strategy for parallelization of the expensive computations of models.
38DENG Siyang, EL BECHARI Reda, BRISSET Stéphane, CLENET Stéphane
"Iterative Kriging-based Methods for Expensive Black-Box Models"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 54, N°. 3, 3,
Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO) in electromagnetic field problems requires the calculation of probability of failure leading to a huge computational cost in the case of expensive models. Three different RBDO approaches using kriging surrogate model are proposed to overcome this difficulty by introducing an approximation of the objective function and constraints. These methods use different infill sampling criteria (ISC) to add samples in the process of optimization or/and in the reliability analysis. Several enrichment criteria and strategies are compared in terms of number of evaluations and accuracy of the solution.
39PIERQUIN Antoine, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane
"Data-Driven Model Order Reduction for Magnetostatic Problem Coupled with Circuit Equations"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 54, N°. 3, 3
40TITTARELLI Roberta, LE MENACH Yvonnick, PIRIOU Francis, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, DUCREUX Jean-Pierre
"Comparison of Numerical Error Estimators for Eddy Current Problems solved by FEM"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 54, N°. 3, p. 7401204, 3,
In the domain of field computation with the finite element method, choosing the mesh refinement is an important step to obtain an accurate solution. In order to evaluate the quality of the mesh, a posteriori error estimators are frequently used. In this communication we propose to analyze and to compare residual and equilibrated error estimators for eddy current problems in the case of A-φ and TΩ formulations. The different properties of the estimators will be discussed.
41MONTIER Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane, GOURSAUD Benjamin
"Proper Generalized Decomposition Applied on a Rotating Electrical Machine"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 3
42HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane
"Application of the Proper Generalized Decomposition to Solve MagnetoElectric Problem"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 3
"An improved 2D subdomain model of squirrel cage induction machine including winding and slotting harmonics at steady state"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 54, N°. 2, 2
44FARZAM FAR Mehrnaz, MARTIN Floran, BELAHCEN Anouar, MONTIER Laurent, HENNERON Thomas
"Orthogonal Interpolation Method for Order Reduction of a Synchronous Machine Model"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 54, N°. 2, p. 1-6, 2
45FU Dangshan, XU Yanliang, GILLON Frédéric, GONG Jinlin, BRACIKOWSKI Nicolas
"Presentation of a Novel Transverse-Flux Permanent Magnet Linear Motor and Its Magnetic Field Analysis Based on Schwarz–Christoffel Mapping Method"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 54, N°. 3, 2,
novel transverse-flux permanent magnet linear motor (TFPMLM) named as double-sided double-excited one is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the operational principle and structural advantages of the TFPMLM are presented. Then, the 3-D magnetic circuit structure of the TFPMLM is simplified equivalently into a 2D one in order that Schwarz-Christoffel (SC) mapping method can be adopted to analyze the motor's magnetic field and characteristics. Then, the air-gap flux density distribution, back voltage and force waveforms when at no-load and at load are calculated by SC mapping method and 3-D FEM respectively for a prototype linear motor, The results from the two methods coincide much better with each other. At last, influences of magnet shape on cogging force are studied by SC method.
"Dynamic model of Li-Ion Batteries Incorporating Electrothermal and Ageing Aspects For Electric Vehicle Applications"
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2, url,
In this paper, a dynamic model of Li-ion batteries incorporating electrothermal and ageing aspects is proposed for electric vehicle applications. The main goal of the proposed model is to be both simple and sufficiently representative of the physical phenomena occurring in a battery cell. These two features allow for using this model as an evaluation tool of electric vehicle performances under different operational and environmental conditions. The developed model is based on an equivalent circuit diagram coupled with a thermal circuit and a semi-empirical ageing equation. Identification of parameters in the dynamic model is conducted by measurement tests in time-domain, which uses a hybrid Particle Swarm–Nelder–Mead optimization algorithm to achieve excellent prediction over the whole applicable current and state of charge ranges. The validation results show that the proposed model is able to simulate the dynamic interaction between the battery ageing and the thermal as well as electric behavior with sufficient accuracy in the range tested.
"Global Advanced Control Strategy for Modular Multilevel Converter integrated in a HVDC Link"
International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems - John Wiley and Sons, Vol. 28, N°. 4, p. e2511, 1, url,
Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is becoming a promising converter technology for high-voltage direct current transmission systems due to its high modularity, availability, and power quality. It is a multi-input-multi-output nonlinear system. The control system for MMC is required to simultaneously achieve multiple control objectives. Existing control strategies for MMC are complex and
the controller parameter design is not straightforward for the nonlinear systems with highly coupled states. In view of this, a steady-state model for the MMC is developed on bilinear deviation state-space model around a working point. Based on linear quadratic regulator and least squares methods, a nonlinear polynomial feedback law is designed to simultaneously control the grid and differential currents, and the global stored energy and energy balancing between total upper and lower arms. To generate the optimal current references, a multivariable linear quadratic controller is used to regulate the total energy per leg, energy difference between each upper and lower arms, and the DC bus voltage. The proposed high-level controller depicts an original advanced control structure of MMC converter. The performance of the proposed strategy for a detailed model of 400-level MMC is evaluated using simulations in MATLAB/SIMULINK/SPS software environment.
"Real-time Backstepping control for fuel cell vehicle using supercapacitors"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 67, N°. 1, p. 306-314, 1
49LI Kaibo, BOUSCAYROL Alain, HAN Shoulaing, CUI Shumei
"Comparisons of Electrical Vehicles using Modular Cascade Machines System and Classical Single Drive Electrical Machine"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 67, N°. 1, p. 354-361, 1
50ZAHARIA Andreea, BRISSET Stéphane, RADULESCU M. Mircea
"Design of a Brushless DC Permanent Magnet Generator for Use in Micro-Wind Turbine Applications"
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 56, N°. S1, p. 1, 1,
This paper deals with the optimal design of a direct-driven brushless DC permanent-magnet (BLDCPM) generator over a long-term wind speed cycle operation. Such a large wind speed profile causes long processing time in the search of the optimal solution, therefore a simplification method of the profile based on an original barycenter method is proposed and applied to the power losses computation of the wind energy system. As a result, the optimization methodology relies on two modeling levels different in simulation time and approach and is based on a constrained mono-objective problem with adequate optimization strategy and algorithm that aims at reducing the global system power losses for the given wind speed profile while finding the optimal geometrical and electrical features of the BLDCPM wind generator.
"Dual-Multiphase Motor Drives for Fault-Tolerant Applications: Power Electronic Structures and Control Strategies"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 33, N°. 1, p. 572-580, ISBN DOI : 10.1109/TPEL.2017.2766359, 1, url,
This paper analyzes two fault-tolerant dual-multiphase motor drives, a series connected topology and a standard H-bridge topology. Previous studies have shown that the series connected topology is appropriate to an aerospace application and has lower peak current in degraded mode in comparison with the H-bridge topology, which may consequently diminish the system’s weight and cost. This paper extends the study to compare different control strategies of these structures under two fault conditions: short-circuit of an inverter’s switch and an open-phase of the machine. The control strategies analyzed in this paper do not impact the fundamental current or the torque generation, but the amplitudes of some harmonics in degraded mode are expected to be narrowed down in order to reduce the inverter’s size. Some analyses of maximum voltage and peak current in degraded mode have been used for inverter dimensioning. Experimental results are shown and compared to the simulated ones to confirm the validity of this study.
52NGUYEN Thu-Trang, CLENET Stéphane
"Influence of Material and Geometric Parameters on the Sensor Based on Active Materials"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 54, N°. 3, 1
53DUTRIEUX Héloïse, COSSON Marjorie, BECT Julien, DELILLE Gauthier, FRANCOIS Bruno
"A novel non-intrusive approximation method to obtain fast and accurate multi-period load-flows for distribution network planning"
Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 154, p. 444-451, 1
"EPE’13 ECCE Europe, a carbon neutral conference!"
EPE Journal, Vol. 28, N°. 1, p. 43-48, 1
1GRUSON François, KADRI Riad, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier, DELARUE Philippe, BERGÉ Marta, DENNETIERE Sébastien, OULD BACHIR Tarek
"Design, implementation and testing of a Modular Multilevel Converter"
EPE Journal, Vol. 27, N°. 4, 12,
The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is a power electronic structure used for high voltage adjustable speed drives applications as well as power transmission applications and high-voltage direct current (HVDC). MMC structure presents many advantages such as modularity, the absence of a high voltage DC bus and very low switching frequency. It presents also some disadvantages such as modeling complexity and control due to the large number of semiconductors to control. The objectives of this paper are to present the methodology to design a laboratory MMC converter and its control system. This methodology is based on an intensive used of real-time simulation, to develop and test the control algorithm is proposed. This MMC prototype must be as realistic as possible to a full scale MMC, with a large number of SM (i.e. 640kV on the DC side, a rated power of 1GW and 400 sub-modules). A control hardware integrating distributed processors (one for each arm) and a master control is presented. The protocols to validate sub-modules, arms and the converter are explained.
"Vector Control Of Piezoelectric Transducers and Ultrasonic Actuators"
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 12,
This paper presents the implementation of a novel vibration amplitude control and resonant frequency tracking for Piezoelectric Transducers (PT) and Ultrasonic Motors (USM). It is based on a generalization of the Vector Control Method (VCM) to PT and USM that is explained in the first part. We show that two independent controllers with similar structure are required : one tracks the resonant frequency and the second controls the amplitude.We then present the implementation into a low cost DSP controller with a 200μsec sampling period. Experimental results on a Langevin Transducer achieved a time response of 20msec approximately, and the generality of the method is further demonstrated on a 2D Tactile stimulator at the end of the paper.
"Generalized Voltage-based State-Space Modelling of Modular Multilevel Converters with Constant Equilibrium Point in Steady-State Operation"
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, 12
4NGOUA TEU MAGAMBO Jean Sylvio, BAKRI Reda, MARGUERON Xavier, LE MOIGNE Philippe, MAHE Arnaud, GUGUEN Stephane, BENSALAH Taoufik
"Planar Magnetic Components in More Electric Aircraft: Review of Technology and Key Parameters for DC-DC Power Electronic Converter"
IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, Vol. 3, N°. 4, p. 831-842, 12, url,
The More Electric Aircraft (MEA) has motivated aircraft manufacturers since few decades. Indeed, their investigations lead to the increase of electric power in airplanes. The challenge is to decrease the weight of embedded systems and therefore the fuel consumption. This is possible thanks to new efficient power electronic converters made of new components. As magnetic components represent a great proportion of their weight, planar components are an interesting solution to increase the power density of some switching mode power supplies. This paper presents the benefits and drawbacks of high frequency planar transformers in DC/DC converter, different models developed for their design and different issues in MEA context related to planar’s specific geometry and technology.
"The tactile perception of transient changes in friction"
Journal Royal Society Interface, Vol. 14, N°. 20170641, 11, url,
When we touch an object or explore a texture, frictional strains are induced
by the tactile interactions with the surface of the object. Little is known about
how these interactions are perceived, although it becomes crucial for the nascent
industry of interactive displays with haptic feedback (e.g. smartphones
and tablets) where tactile feedback based on friction modulation is particularly
relevant. To investigate the human perception of frictional strains, we
mounted a high-fidelity friction modulating ultrasonic device on a robotic
platform performing controlled rubbing of the fingertip and asked participants
to detect induced decreases of friction during a forced-choice task.
The ability to perceive the changes in friction was found to follow Weber’s
Law of just noticeable differences, as it consistently depended on the ratio
between the reduction in tangential force and the pre-stimulation tangential
force. The Weber fraction was 0.11 in all conditions demonstrating a very
high sensitivity to transient changes in friction. Humid fingers experienced
less friction reduction than drier ones for the same intensity of ultrasonic
vibration but the Weber fraction for detecting changes in friction was not
influenced by the humidity of the skin.
6FREYTES Julian, GILBERT Bergna, JON ARE Suul, SALVATORE D'Arco, GRUSON François, COLAS Frédéric, SAAD Hani, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Improving Small-Signal Stability of an MMC with CCSC by Control of the Internally Stored Energy"
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 11
7TAYLOR Laurent, MARGUERON Xavier, LE MENACH Yvonnick, LE MOIGNE Philippe
"Numerical Modeling of PCB Planar Inductors: Impact of 3-D Modeling on High Frequency Copper Loss Evaluation"
IET Power Electronics, Vol. 10, N°. 14, p. 1966-1974, 11, url,
Loss values are key parameters for designing high performance high frequency (HF) magnetic components for power electronics (PE) converters. With the increase of PE switching frequencies, copper losses have to be precisely quantified, ideally until some megahertz. In the literature, many 2-D numerical simulations based on finite element analysis (FEA) are performed for such computations. 3-D FEA studies of planar components are still limited because of modeling problems, computational resources and computing time. In this paper, quantitative comparisons between 2-D and 3-D simulation results for planar inductors are achieved focusing on copper loss computation. Results are compared in terms of simulation performances and accuracy. The aim of the paper is to highlight benefits of 2-D and 3-D FEA simulations in order to
choose the appropriate model according to the studied problem.
"Sensitivity of predictive controllers to parameter variation in five-phase induction motor drives"
Control Engineering Practice, Vol. 68, p. 23-31, ISBN DOI: 10.1016/j.conengprac.2017.08.001, 11, url,
Model predictive control techniques have been recently proposed as a viable control alternative for power converters and electrical drives. The good current tracking, flexible control design or reduced switching losses are some of the benefits that explain the recently increased attention on finite-control-set model predictive control. The performance of the predictive model of the drive, which is the core of the predictive control, highly depends on the parameters of the real system. In this context, most research works assume good agreement between electrical parameters of the predictive model and the real machine, on the basis of nominal values. Nevertheless, this is far from being a real assumption, where non-modeled variables (i.e. the temperature, the magnetic saturation or the deep-bar effect) produce a detuning effect between the real system and its model, which can harm the control performance. The influence of parameter variations on the predictive control has barely been investigated in recent research works, where only conventional three-phase power converter configurations and permanent magnet drives have been taken into account. However, there is a lack of knowledge when different technologies like induction machines or multiphase drives are considered. It is worth highlighting the interest of the industry in induction motors as a mature technology or in multiphase drives as a promising alternative in applications where high overall system reliability and reduction in the total power per phase are required. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the impact of parameters mismatch on the finite-control-set predictive control performance of a five-phase induction motor drive, one of the multiphase electromechanical conversion systems with greatest impact in the research community. An exhaustive experimental sensitivity analysis of the close loop system performance based on more than three hundred trials in a test bench is presented.
9AMAMRA Sid-Ali, MEGHRICHE Meghriche, CHERIFI Abderrezzak, FRANCOIS Bruno
"Multilevel Inverter Topology for Renewable Energy Grid Integration"
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 64, N°. 11, 11
10ZHANG Jian, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DELARUE Philippe, PIRIOU Francis, LEONTIDIS Vlasios, DAZIN Antoine, CAIGNAERT Guy, LIBAUX Antoine
"Quantitative Design of a High Performance Permanent Magnet Vernier Generator"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 11, 11
"Energy Savings of a Hybrid Truck using a Ravigneaux Gear Train"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66, N°. 10, p. 8682 - 8692, 10
12TAN-KIM Antoine, HAGEN Nicolas, LANFRANCHI Vincent, CLENET Stéphane, COOREVITS Thierry, MIPO Jean-Claude, LEGRANGER J., PALLESHI F
"Influence of the Manufacturing Process of a Claw-Pole Alternator on Its Stator Shape and Acoustic Noise"
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 53, N°. 5, 10,
This paper shows the influence of the manufacturing process of a claw-pole alternator on its acoustic noise. First, the stator welds and the assembly of the stator in the brackets are linked to deformations of the inner diameter of the stator. Then, the influences of these deformations on the magnetic forces and the subsequent acoustic noise are investigated. Results show that the deformations caused by the manufacturing process significantly increase the sound power level of particular orders.
"Simulation of a large power Brushless Synchronous Generator (BLSG) with a rotating rectifier by a reluctance network for fault analysis and diagnosis"
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 53, N°. 5, 10,
Abstract -- The aim of this paper is to simulate a large power brushless synchronous generator (BLSG) used for large turbo-alternator brushless excitation systems, under conditions of saturation and rotating rectifier diode failures. A reluctance network coupled with electric circuits and power electronic components integrating the movement and nonlinearities of materials has been developed. The approach achieves good compromise between accuracy and computing time for the complete analysis of a 39 phase machine with 117 teeth and 22 poles, and 78 diodes in the associated rectifier bridge. Our model is validated by comparison with experimental measurements and numerical simulation by a finite element package. For the simulations presented, a gain in computation time of 800 can be obtained compared with a finite element model. Different results are calculated for healthy and faulty states to study the impact of open diode block failure. Simulation results show that open diode failures have little effect on the rectified output voltage but the current through diodes and protection fuses increases. The currents in armature phase coil are very affected due to failures. A flux sensor coil can be placed on the stator pole to capture the impact of failures. The harmonic content of the pole flux can be used to monitor and detect diode failures.

Index Terms-- Reluctance network, rotating rectifier, diodes, saturation, fault analysis, fault detection.
14BRISSET Stéphane, OGIER Maxime
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields, 10,
Three approaches are proposed for the design of a hybrid railway power substation taking into account the control of the storage system over one year. The first one is based on a piecewise linearization of the cost function and solved with linear programming. The others decompose the whole problem in two levels with lower dimensionality. Collaborative optimization solves it with a double-loop scheme while Benders decomposition allows a sequential resolution. This last gives the same solution as linear programming in about 5 times more computing time and can be used with a non-linear cost function.
"Characterization of the Electric Drive of EV: On-road versus Off-road Method"
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, Vol. 7, N°. 3, p. 215-222, 8
"Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation of Traction Power Supply for Power Flows Analysis of Multi-Train Subway Lines"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66, N°. 7, p. 5564-5571, 7,
Multi-train systems are complex to study due to the size of the system and its specificities. To tackle these difficulties, this paper develops a reduced-scale power Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation dedicated to subway lines emulations. Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used to organize the HIL simulation. A first mono-train HIL simulation is developed and validated by experimental results. The HIL simulation is then extended to a two-train study to analyze the different power flows between subsystems.
17FARZAM FAR Mehrnaz, BELAHCEN Anouar, RASILO Paavo, CLENET Stéphane, PIERQUIN Antoine
"Model order reduction of electrical machines with multiple inputs"
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 53, N°. 4, p. 3355-3360, 7
"Impact of heating system on the range of an electric vehicle"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66, N°. 3, p. 4668 - 4677, 6,
For an accurate evaluation of the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV), many conditions must be considered (road profile, traffic influence, etc.). However cabin heating system is not often considered despite its significant impact. In this paper, the impact of the cabin heating system is studied on the driving range of an EV. A real EV is used as a reference. A multi-domain model is developed and validated by experimental results on the vehicle. From this validated model, the impact of the heating system on the range is evaluated up to 30% in cold climatic conditions. In a classical approach, an eco-driving mode enables an increase in the range by reducing the vehicle acceleration and velocity. When considering the heating system, the energy balance is more complex: the eco-driving mode can lead to an over-consumption of energy. A better compromise is required as a function of the climatic condition
"Dynamical Modeling and Emulation of Li-Ion Batteries/Supercapacitors Hybrid Power Supply for Electric Vehicle Applications"
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, 6,
Modeling dynamic behaviors of the Li-ion battery and supercapacitor in electric vehicle applications is a key aspect for the emulation of the hybrid power supply. In this paper, a dynamical model based on two nonlinear equivalent circuits is developed to describe the characteristics of the battery and supercapacitor during both steady-state and transient conditions. The necessary parameters for proposed model are extracted from measurement data in time and frequency-domain using an optimization algorithm. The developed model is coupled to power electronics devices fed by DC power supply to carry out a laboratory emulator of the hybrid power supply. This tool is mainly used for testing and verification of the electric vehicle performances with convenient and reproducible way. The proposed emulator avoids time-consuming preconditioning and safety problems generally caused by the misuse of electrochemical components such as the Li-ion battery. The modeling and experimental results show a good performance of the hybrid power supply emulator and confirm their feasibility over a wide range of operating points.
20LIU Mingyong, TANG Zuqi, MININGER Xavier, BOUILLAULT Frédéric, HUBERT Olivier, BERNARD Laurent
"Modeling of Magnetic-Induced Deformation Using Computer Code Chaining and Source-Tensor Projection"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, p. 1–4, 6, url,
Source tensor projections are developed for the magneto-elastic coupled problems when magnetostriction-induced force and magnetic force are considered. Comparisons with classical force density projection are first performed on a simple example. Then, it is investigated on an application of a multilayer transformer core with the consideration of material anisotropy and multilayer inhomogeneity.
21FRATILA Mircea, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DESSOUDE Maxime
"Iron Loss Calculation in a Synchronous Generator Using Finite Element Analysis"
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 32, N°. 2, p. 640 - 648, 6, url,
This paper deals with the calculation of iron losses in a turgenerator using a magnetodynamic Finite Element (F.E.) Analysis accounting for the eddy currents in the damper bars. Two iron loss models, based on the Berttoti’s decomposition approach, are compared in the post-processing step of a F.E. calculation. The numerical model of the studied system is validated by comparing the calculation and the experiment for no-load conditions.
22SATHYAN Sabin, BELAHCEN Anouar, JUHANI Kataya, HENROTTE François, BENABOU Abdelkader, LE MENACH Yvonnick
"Computation of Magnetic Forces Using Degenerated Airgap Element"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, p. 7401304, 6, url,
This paper presents an efficient method to calculate the magnetic forces on bodies in contact. The forces are computed through the local application of the virtual work principle on degenerated air-gap elements. The results from this method are compared with those from other software and validated with measurements on a permanent magnet setup. Not only is this technique very accurate, but it also reduces the computational burden related to the problematic meshing of thin layers. The implementation of this method in an open source finite element software having facilities for higher order elements and parallel computation unlocks a cost effective and effectual platform for an electromechanical computation of electromechanical devices and magnetic materials.
23CHEAYTANI Jalal, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DESSOUDE Maxime
"Stray load losses analysis of cage induction motor using 3-D finite element method with external circuit coupling"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, p. 8202104, 6, url,
The stray load losses in electrical machines represent a non-negligible contribution of the total losses and are a key point for an accurate evaluation of the energy efficiency of the considered device. In this paper, a methodology using the 3-D finite-element (FE) modeling approach and a posteriori loss calculation is presented for the estimation of the stray load losses. The case of a cage induction motor is investigated, and results are compared with the experiment. The simulation is performed at different load conditions using a 3-D FE model with external circuit coupling.
24MONTIER Laurent, CLENET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas, GOURSAUD Benjamin
"Rotation movement based on the Spatial Fourier Interpolation Method (SFIM)"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, 6,
In the field of computational electromagnetics, taking into account the rotation of a sub-domain is required to simulate certain devices such as electrical machines. Several methods have been proposed in the literature, but they remain quite difficult to implement. In this paper, we propose a sliding surface method based on a spatial Fourier interpolation in order to take into account any rotation angle with a very simple numerical implementation.
25MONTIER Laurent, PIERQUIN Antoine, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane
"Structure Preserving Model Reduction of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Problem based on POD and DEIM"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, 6,
The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) combined with the (Discrete) Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM) can be used to reduce the computation time of the solution of a FE model. However, it can lead to numerical instabilities. To increase the robustness, the POD_DEIM model must be constructed by preserving the structure of the full FE model. In this article, the structure preserving is applied for different potential formulations used to solve electromagnetic problems.
26HENNERON Thomas, MONTIER Laurent, PIERQUIN Antoine, CLENET Stéphane
"Comparison of DEIM and BPIM to Speed up a POD-based Nonlinear Magnetostatic Model"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, 6,
Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) has been successfully used to reduce the size of the equation system and the computation time of linear Finite Element (FE) problems. With a nonlinear behavior law, the POD is not so efficient due to the computation cost of nonlinear entries of the full FE model. Then, the POD approach must be combined with an interpolation method of nonlinear terms to obtain an efficient reduced model. An interpolation method consists on the computation of a small number of nonlinear entries and on the interpolation of other terms. Different methods have been presented to select the set of nonlinear entries to be calculated. Then, the (Discrete) Empirical Interpolation method ((D)EIM) and the Best Points Interpolation Method (BPIM) have been developed. In this article, we propose to compare two reduced models based on the POD-(D)EIM and on the POD-BPIM in the case of nonlinear magnetostatics coupled with electric equation.
27YAN Xingyu, ABBES Dhaker, FRANCOIS Bruno
"Uncertainty analysis for day ahead power reserve quantification in an urban microgrid including PV generators"
Renewable Energy, Vol. 106, p. 288–297, 6, url,
Setting an adequate operating power reserve (PR) to compensate unpredictable imbalances between generation and consumption is essential for power system security. Operating power reserve should be carefully sized but also ideally minimized and dispatched to reduce operation costs with a satisfying security level. Although several energy generation and load forecasting tools have been developed, decision-making methods are required to estimate the operating power reserve amount within its dispatch over generators during small time windows and with adaptive capabilities to markets, as new ancillary service markets. This paper proposes an uncertainty analysis method for power reserve quantification in an urban microgrid with a high penetration ratio of PV (photovoltaic) power. First, forecasting errors of PV production and load demand are estimated one day ahead by using artificial neural networks. Then two methods are proposed to calculate one day ahead the net demand error. The first perform a direct forecast of the error, the second one calculates it from the available PV power and load demand forecast errors. This remaining net error is analyzed with dedicated statistical and stochastic procedures. Hence, according to an accepted risk level, a method is proposed to calculate the required PR for each hour.
"Optimal Energy Management For a Li-Ion Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Incorporating NelderMead Simplex Approach"
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, 6, url,
Combining a high power source like a supercapacitor with a Li-ion battery for electric vehicle applications results in good performance improvements, highly efficient, long lifetime, lightweight design and relatively modest cost of the overall source. A hybrid energy storage system controlled by a smart energy management strategy can play a key role in the design and development of multi-source electric vehicles. In this work, an optimal energy management strategy based on particle swarm optimization incorporating Nelder-Mead simplex method is proposed. The goal of the proposed strategy is to minimize the battery power stress and improves its lifetime. This is achieved by coupling a rule-based method based on the knowledge of the battery and supercapacitor efficiency operating with a hybrid Particle Swarm–Nelder–Mead (PSO–NM) optimization algorithm. This latter approach is proposed to optimize the control parameters of the rule-based energy management strategy, once the off-line optimization algorithm is over, the control method can be implemented on-line. The obtained results demonstrate significant lifetime enhancements for Li-Ion battery, an increase of up to 20% as compared to the mono-source based on regular single battery.
"Friction Reduction through Ultrasonic Vibration Part 2: Experimental Evaluation of Intermittent Contact and Squeeze Film Levitation"
IEEE Transactions on Haptics, Vol. 10, N°. 2, p. 208-216, ISBN 1939-1412, 6, url,
In part 1 of the current study of haptic displays, a finite element (FE) model of a finger exploring a plate vibrating out-of-plane at ultrasonic frequencies was developed as well as a spring-frictional slider model. It was concluded that the reduction in friction induced by the vibrations could be ascribed to ratchet mechanism as a result of intermittent contact. The relative reduction in friction calculated using the FE model could be superimposed onto an exponential function of a dimensionless group defined from relevant parameters. The current paper presents measurements of the reduction in friction, involving real and artificial fingertips, as a function of the vibrational amplitude and frequency, the applied normal force and the exploration velocity. The results are reasonably similar to the calculated FE values and also could be superimposed using the exponential function provided that the intermittent contact was sufficiently well developed, which for the frequencies examined correspond to a minimum vibrational amplitude of - 1 μm P-P. It was observed that the reduction in friction depends on the exploration velocity and is independent of the applied normal force and ambient air pressure, which is not consistent with the squeeze film mechanism. However, the modelling did not incorporate the influence of air and the effect of ambient pressure was measured under a limited range of conditions, Thus squeeze film levitation may be synergistic with the mechanical interaction.
30VEZZOLI Eric, VIDRIH Zlatko, GIAMUNDO Vincenzo, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD Frédéric, RODIC Tomaz, PERIC Djordje, ADAMS Michael
"Friction Reduction through Ultrasonic Vibration Part 1: Modelling Intermittent Contact"
IEEE Transactions on Haptics, Vol. 10, N°. 2, p. 196-207, ISBN 1939-1412, 6, url,
Ultrasonic vibration is employed to modify the friction of a finger pad in way that induces haptic sensations. A combination of intermittent contact and squeeze film levitation has been previously proposed as the most probable mechanism. In this paper, in order to understand the underlying principles that govern friction modulation by intermittent contact, numerical models based on finite element (FE) analysis and also a spring-Coulombic slider are developed. The physical input parameters for the FE model are optimized by measuring the contact phase shift between a finger pad and a vibrating plate. The spring-slider model assists in the interpretation of the FE model and leads to the identification of a dimensionless group that allows the calculated coefficient of friction to be approximately superimposed onto an exponential function of the dimensionless group. Thus, it is possible to rationalize the computed relative reduction in friction being (i) dependent on the vibrational amplitude, frequency, and the intrinsic coefficient of friction of the device, and the reciprocal of the exploration velocity, and (ii) independent of the applied normal force, and the shear and extensional elastic moduli of the finger skin provided that intermittent contact is sufficiently well developed. Experimental validation of the modelling using real and artificial fingertips will be reported in part 2 of this work, which supports the current modelling.
31LEFORT Romain, VAUZELLE Rodolphe, COURTECUISSE Vincent, IDIR Nadir, POUSSARD Anne-Marie
"Influence of the MV/LV transformer impedance on the propagation of the PLC signal in the power grid"
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 31, N°. 3, p. 1339 - 1349, ISBN 0885-8977, 6,
Improving the operation of power grid and offering new smart applications, the deployment of a supervisory infrastructure is necessary. One solution to transmit data may be based on the Power Line Communication (PLC) technology. It consists in the superposition of the high frequency signals with the electrical signal 50/60 Hz. However, the power grids have not been designed to operate in high frequencies. Therefore, they provide a transmission channel with difficult propagation conditions. This paper deals with the modeling of the MV/LV power transformers in PLC frequencies. The proposed models are based on “lumped model” and “black box model”. They are performed in frequency band from 1 kHz to 1 MHz on SPICE and MATLAB softwares respectively. These models are based on impedance measurements and validated by experimental data. The advantages and drawbacks of each model are detailed from the presentation of modeling method and simulation results. The comparison of the simulation results show that “black box model” offers a good accuracy. The transmission results show that transformers are an important element in PLC studies because it provides significant losses. Moreover, these losses depend mainly on the values of the impedance terminals of MV/LV transformer.
"Thermal Topology Optimization of a Three-Layer Laminated Busbar for Power Converters"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 32, N°. 6, p. 4691-4699, 6,
This paper focuses on a topology optimization method for laminated busbars in power converters that minimizes the quantity of copper used while keeping the temperature under the allowed limits. Busbars are widely studied for adding their stray inductance to the commutation loop, which causes surge voltage across the power devices. However, the study of heat dissipation is essential to control hotspots in the busbar and preserve the converter components. Current density and temperature are sensitive to shape modifications; hence, topology optimization based on multiphysics simulations is an aspect to be considered when designing prototypes for a good cost performance ratio. The temperature is calculated by an electrothermal two-dimensional (2-D) finite element method (FEM) superposition approach. Busbar plates are modeled in 2-D since the thickness is constant. Furthermore, the different layers are related by the thermal equations reproducing the heat transfers regarding the overlap in the laminated busbar. Simulation results are validated by experimental tests. Comparison with 3-D FEM proves the 2-D approach to be faster while remaining accurate and a perfect method for topology optimization resolutions, which are very time consuming for three-dimensional (3-D) geometries. The busbar topology optimization is made by maximizing the energy transfer with the environment and by varying the electric and thermal conductivities of the mesh elements. Optimization leads to more than 50% volume reduction.
33RIZOUG Nassim, SADOUN Rehda, MESBAHI Tedjani, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick, LE MOIGNE Philippe
"Aging of High power Li-ion cells during real use of electric vehicles"
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, 4,
Currently, the vehicle manufacturers use the high power Li-ion technology to supply the electric and hybrid vehicles. This technology is able to ensure the power needed to propel the vehicle. Until now several studies have been made by the laboratories and manufacturers to characterize this technology. The aim of these test (electric, thermal, aging,…) is to make comparison between Li-ion technologies and choice the best one for each application. For that, they use accelerated cycling with different condition to characterize cells, what can reduce the tests duration. Unfortunately, this type of cycle can’t give us information about the aging of HP Li-ion technology under real use of the vehicle. Firstly, the requirements specification (vehicle specification, battery technologies, mission) has been presented. After that, we will present the test bench developed in our laboratory to characterize batteries and study the aging of the HP technology. In this paper we present the study of the Li-ion HP behavior during almost 3 years and the modelling (electric, thermal and aging modelling) using a real driving cycle. The experimental results are compared to the results obtained with the developed ageing model. The obtained results prove the good performances of this technology in electric vehicle applications.
34MONTIER Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, GOURSAUD Benjamin, CLENET Stéphane
"Balanced Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Applied to Magnetoquasistatic Problems Through a Stabilization Methodology"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 4
"PWM Strategy for the Cancellation of Common-Mode Voltage Generated by Three-Phase Back-to-Back Inverters"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 32, N°. 4, p. 2675-2686, 4, url,
This paper presents a PWM strategy for the cancellation of common-mode (CM) voltage generated by three-phase back-to-back two-level inverters. This method theoretically provides complete elimination of the CM voltage by synchronizing all the commutations of one converter with commutations of the other one, so that the overall resulting CM voltage does not vary. The degrees of freedom of this strategy are studied and an experimental implementation is carried out on a 15kW motor drive prototype to validate the method effectiveness. Taking into account dead-time compensation, measurements in time and frequency domains show that the CM voltage is strongly reduced and that more than 15dB reduction is achieved in a wide frequency range.
36ARBENZ Laure, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane, MIPO Jean-Claude, FAVEROLLE Pierre
"Characterization of the Local Incremental Permeability of a Ferromagnetic Plate Based on a Four Needles Technique"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 3, 3, url,
The performances of electrical machines depend highly on the behavior of ferromagnetic materials. In some applications, these materials operate under DC polarization, i.e. when the magnetic field oscillates around a DC bias. In that condition, it is required to know the incremental permeability which characterizes the magnetic behavior of the material around the operating point. In this paper, a non-destructive approach, involving a combination of experiment and Finite Element (FE) technique, is presented in order to determine the incremental permeability. The proposed sensor is based on the four-needles method. With this sensor, Bowler et al. have proposed a method to determine the initial permeability of homogeneous metal plates based on an analytical model. Here we propose to use the same kind of sensor to determine the incremental permeability. The measurement process is analyzed using a FE model. It is shown that the analytical approach reaches its limits if the permeability of the plate and its thickness become too high. A combination between the measurements and a FE model is introduced to overcome this difficulty to determine the incremental permeability. The study of two magnetic steel samples illustrates the interest of this method.
37CARON Guillaume, HENNERON Thomas, PIRIOU Francis, MIPO Jean-Claude
"Waveform relaxation-Newton method to determine steady state: application to three-phase transformer"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 36, N°. 3, p. 729-740, 3,
To determine the steady state of an electromagnetic structure with the finite element method without calculation of the transient state. The proposed method permits to reduce the computation time if the transient state is important. In the case of coupling magnetic and electric circuit equations to obtain the steady state with periodic conditions, an approach can be to discretise the time with periodic conditions and to solve the equation system. Unfortunately, the computation time can be prohibitive. In this paper, the authors proposed to use the waveform relaxation method associated to Newton method to accelerate the convergence. The obtained results show that the proposed approach is efficient if the transient state is important. On the contrary, if the transient is very low it is preferable to use the classical approach namely the time stepping finite element method. The main limitation of the proposed approach is the necessity to evaluate or to know the time constant and consequently the duration of the transient state. Moreover the method requires some important memory resources. In the context of the use of the time stepping finite element method, one of the problems is the computation time which can be important to obtain the steady state. The proposed method permits avoidance of this difficulty and gives directly the steady state. The novelty is the proposal of the waveform relaxation Newton method to obtain directly the steady state in the case of the study of the three phases transformer
"On the Backstepping Approach for VSC-HVDC and VSC-MTDC Transmission Systems"
Electric Power Components and Systems - Taylor & Francis, Vol. 45, N°. 5, p. 520-533, ISBN 1532-5008, 3, url,
This article presents a backstepping control design strategy for the voltage source converter (VSC)-based high-voltage direct current (HVDC). First, a dynamic model is derived based on the state
space description. Subject to the backstepping control design proce-
dure strategy, a non-linear control scheme is developed in the sense
of Lyapunov stability theory in order to satisfy various objectives of
a stable HVDC system and guarantee a grid connection with a unity
power factor. Then, the proposed control method is extended for
multi-terminal (MT) HVDC transmission systems based on VSCs. In
order to improve the dynamic behavior of the controlled DC bus volt-
age and the stability of MTDC systems, a backstepping control strat-
egy accorded to each VSC is proposed and integrated into the voltage
droop control strategy. The designed advanced controller allows to
improve the overall DC grid stability and to reach the droop values,
designed on static considerations, with satisfying dynamic behavior.
Compared to the conventional control, the use of a backstepping con-
trol allows to exhibit excellent transient response over a wide range
of operating conditions.
"Open-Phase Fault-Tolerant Direct Torque Control Technique for Five-Phase Induction Motor Drives"
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 64, N°. 2, p. 902-911, ISBN DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2016.2610941, 2, url,
Direct torque control (DTC) has been widely used as an alternative to traditional field-oriented control (FOC) methods for three-phase drives. The conventional DTC scheme has been successfully extended to multiphase drives in recent times, using hysteresis regulators to independently track the desired torque and flux in symmetrical five-phase induction machines (IM). The fault-tolerant capability of multiphase drives is an interesting intrinsic advantage for safety-critical applications, where recent research has demonstrated the effectiveness of FOC schemes to perform ripple-free post-fault operation. In spite of the utility of DTC methods in normal operation of the multiphase machine, no extension to manage the post-fault operation of the drive is found in the literature. In this paper, a novel fault-tolerant DTC scheme is presented. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally validated in a five-phase IM drive considering an open-phase fault condition. Provided tests analyze steady and transient states, including the transition from pre- to post-fault operation. Obtained results prove the interest of the proposal, which ensures the open-phase fault-tolerant capability of DTC controlled five-phase IM drives.
"Real time electrical power estimation for the energy management of automatic metro lines"
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 131, p. 3-20, 1,
This paper intends to present a methodology to maximise reuse of regenerative braking energy in automatic
metro lines for both offline and real time energy management. It first describes optimisation
techniques for scheduling energy efficient timetables, while considering a no-fluctuation operating mode, as
it corresponds to the most dominant operating case. Impact of headway and dwell time management on
regenerative braking recovery are especially examined with a multi-criteria fitness function. Then, iterative
solving techniques are introduced to precisely quantify energy transfers between trains. A neural estimator
of trains power consumption is also proposed to meet real time requirements. Simulation results based on
experiments conducted on Torino metro line are exposed to evaluate the performance of this estimator.
"Methodology for technical and economic assessment of electric vehicles integration in distribution grid"
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 131, p. 172-189, 1,
This paper proposes a methodology to design a supervision system (SS) based on Fuzzy and Boolean logics. In the first stage, a graphical modeling tool is used to facilitate the analysis and the determination of Fuzzy–Boolean algorithm linked to the test system. To improve the performance of the proposed SS a genetic algorithm (GA) is implemented in the second stage. The SS objective is used to control electric vehicles (EVs) load in order to minimize the energy transmission costs (ETC) of the distribution system operator (DSO). To achieve this goal, it is necessary to promote local consumption of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power by coordinating them with EVs load, maximize EVs charging during cheaper energy periods and reduce subscribed power exceeding.
The performance of the SS is shown by numerical simulation results using Matlab/Simulink. Finally, a Matlab–PowerFactory
co-simulation framework is proposed in order to assess supervision system influence on the technical aspects of a real test grid.
42SHINODA Kosei, GUILLAUD Xavier, BACHA Seddik, BENCHAIB Abdelkrim, FRANCOIS Bruno
"Modelling of a VSC-based multi-terminal HVDC network for dynamic stability analysis"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 36, N°. 1, p. 240 - 257, 1,
Self-commuted voltage source converter (VSC) can significantly extend the flexibility and operability of an HVDC system and be used to implement the concept of multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) grid. To take full advantage of MTDC systems, its overall behaviour must be characterized in quasi static and dynamic states. Based on the numerous literatures, a dedicated two-level VSC model and its local controllers and DC grid voltage regulators are developed for this purpose. Furthermore, the requirement of the system to guarantee all the physical constrains must be well assessed and concrete demonstrations must be provided by numerical simulations.

First, a two-level VSC model and its local controllers and DC grid voltage regulators are developed. Then, DC cable models are investigated and their characteristics are assessed in the frequency domain. Those developed models are combined to form a three-terminal HVDC grid system on Matlab/Simulink platform. To analyze the stability of this electrical system, the dynamics of the system against variations of power dispatch are observed.

To analyze the stability of this electrical system, the dynamics of the system against variations of power dispatch are observed. The differences in the DC grid voltage dynamics and the power flow of the converter stations coming from the embedded primary controls are analysed, and the technical requirements for both cases are assessed.

In this paper, the dynamic stability of an MTDC system has been analysed and assessed through an adequate simulation model, including its control scheme and the cable models. The interest of the improved PI model for cables is highlighted.
43HOANG Trung-Kien, VIDO Lionel, GABSI Mohamed, GILLON Frédéric
"Flux control range broadening and torque ripple minimization of a double excitation synchronous motor"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 1, p. 1-10, 1,
This paper presents performance improvements of a double excitation synchronous motor by using a reluctance network (RN).
The distinguishing feature of the double excitation principle is to use permanent magnets with high energy, while air-gap flux is
flexibly controlled by field windings. Therefore, the first contribution of this paper focuses on maximizing air-gap flux range control. Second, an approach for torque ripple reduction is proposed by directly modifying air-gap flux according to the instantaneous torque profile. The achieved resultant torque stays almost constant for a case study. The validity of the RN method is examined by comparisons with 3-D finite element and experimental results for several machines.
"Combined Optimal Sizing and Control of Li-Ion Battery/Supercapacitor Embedded Power Supply Using Hybrid Particle Swarm-Nelder-Mead Algorithm"
IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, Vol. 8, N°. 1, p. pp.59-73, 1, url,
This paper examines and optimizes parameters that affect the sizing and control of a hybrid embedded power supply composed of Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors in electric vehicle applications. High demands including power and energy density, low charge/discharge power stress on the battery (long lifetime), lightweight design and relatively modest cost at the same time cannot be provided solely by batteries or supercapacitors. For this reason, we propose the use of a Li-ion battery/supercapacitor hybrid embedded power supply for an urban electric vehicle. The sizing process of this system including the optimization of the power sharing is done thanks to a developed hybrid Particle Swarm–Nelder–Mead (PSO–NM) algorithm involving multi-objective optimization. This approach also allows us to optimize the proposed energy management strategies based on frequency rule-based control and different ways of supercapacitors energy regulation. Obtained results show that the hybrid embedded power supply with the proposed control strategies is able to offer the best performances for the chosen electric vehicle in terms of weight, initial cost and battery lifetime.
1BUZILA-PANKOVITS Petronela, ABBES Dhaker, SAUDEMONT Christophe, BRISSET Stéphane, POUGET Julien, ROBYNS Benoît
"Multi-criteria fuzzy-logic optimized supervision for hybrid railway power substations"
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 130, p. 236-250, 12,
Renewable energy sources and storage units’ integration in the railway power substations is an alternative solution to handle
the energy consumption, due to railway traffic increase and electricity market liberalization. To integrate this technology change in the railway network, an adapted energy management system has to be established. However, when considering only energy efficiency aspects on the energy management strategy, an economical viable solution cannot be ensured. This paper proposes a supervision strategy based on multi-criteria approach including energetic, environmental and economic constraints. The energy management objectives such as reducing the network power demand, favoring local renewable consumption and ensuring storage availability are treated in different time levels. Economic aspects are first integrated in predictive mode based on forecast data.
Then a supervision strategy is developed based on fuzzy logic approach and graphical tool to build it. An optimization study of
the supervision strategy is proposed in order to conclude on system performance. Simulation results are discussed for different scenarios cases and the reaction of the hybrid railway power substation is detailed. Results show that this methodology can be successfully applied for hybrid systems energy management in order to improve their energy efficiency.
"Influence of the heating system on the fuel consumption of a hybrid electric vehicle"
Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 129, p. 250–261, 12,
This research work aims to study the impact of the heating system on the fuel consumption of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The thermal engine is less used in an HEV than in a thermal vehicle, thus the cabin heating is partly ensured by electrical resistances. However, because the battery is partly charged by the thermal engine, this electrical heating has an impact on the fuel consumption. In the present work, a multi-domain model is proposed to analyze the impact of the heating system on the fuel consumption of a HEV. The models of the different physical subsystems are organized and unified by energetic macroscopic representation (EMR). Experimental validations, with an accuracy of 95%, are provided for each subsystem model. The validated simulation models are used to study the impact of the heating system for a specific driving cycle and climatic condition. For a simple energy management strategy (EMS), there is an over-consumption of 19% that is due to the heating system. When a more efficient EMS is used, the over-consumption is reduced to 12%. This study shows the interest in developing advanced energy management strategies that couple the traction and the heating functions of the vehicle.
"Adaptive Energy Management System Based on a Real-Time Model Predictive Control With Nonuniform Sampling Time for Multiple Energy Storage Electric Vehicle"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 12,
The performance of a dual energy storage electric vehicle system mainly depends on the quality of its power and energy managements. A real-time management strategy supported by a Model Predictive Control using the non-uniform sampling time concept is developed and fully addressed in this paper. First, the overall multiple energy storage powertrain model including its inner control layer is represented with the Energetic Macroscopic Representation and used to introduce the energy strategy level. The model of the system with its inner control layer is translated into the state space domain in order to develop a Model Predictive Control approach. The management algorithm based on mixed short- and long-term predictions is compared to rule-based and constant sampling time Model Predictive Control strategies in order to assess its performance and its ability to be used in a real vehicle. The real-time simulation results indicate that, compared to other strategies, the proposed Model Predictive Control strategy can balance the power and the energy of the dual energy storage system more effectively, and reduce the stress on batteries. Moreover, battery and supercapacitor key variables are kept within safety limits, increasing the lifetime of the overall system.
4AISSOU Riad, REKIOUA Toufik, REKIOUA Djamila, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm
"Robust nonlinear predictive control of permanent magnet synchronous generator turbine using Dspace hardware"
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 41, N°. 45, p. 21047-21056, 12
5AISSOU Riad, REKIOUA Toufik, REKIOUA Djamila, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm
"Application of nonlinear predictive control for charging the battery using wind energy with permanent magnet synchronous generator"
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 41, N°. 45, p. 20964-20973, 12
6ZAHR Hussein, GONG Jinlin, SEMAIL Eric, SCUILLER Franck
"Comparison of optmized Control Strategies of a Bi-harmonic five-phase Electrical Machine for Traction high speed range"
Energies, Vol. 9, N°. 12, p. 952, 11, url,
The purpose of the paper is to present the potentialities in terms of the control of a new kind of PM synchronous machine. With five phases and electromotive forces whose first ( ) and third ( ) harmonics are of similar amplitude, the studied machine, so-called bi-harmonic, has properties that are interesting for traction machine payload. With three-phase machines, supplied by a mono-harmonic sinusoidal current, the weak number of freedom degrees limits the strategy of control for traction machines especially when voltage saturation occurs at high speeds. As the torque is managed for three-phase machines by a current with only one harmonic, flux weakening is necessary to increase speed when the voltage limitation is reached. The studied five-phase machine, thanks to the increase in the number of freedom degrees for control, aims to alleviate this fact. In this paper, three optimized control strategies are compared in terms of efficiency and associated torque/speed characteristics. These strategies take into account numerous constraints either from the supply (with limited voltage) or from the machine (with limited current densities and maximum acceptable copper, iron and permanent magnet losses). The obtained results prove the wide potentialities of such a kind of five-phase bi-harmonic machine in terms of control under constraints. It is thus shown that the classical Maximum Torque Per Ampere (MTPA) strategy developed for the three-phase machine is clearly not satisfying on the whole range of speed because of the presence of iron losses whose values can no more be neglected at high speeds. Two other strategies have been then proposed to be able to manage the compromises, at high speeds, between the high values of torque and efficiency under the constraints of admissible total losses either in the rotor or in the stator.
7CAILLARD Pierre, GILLON Frédéric, RANDI Sid-Ali, JANIAUD Noëlle
"Mono and bi-level optimization architectures for powertrain design"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 35, N°. 3, p. 847-859, 11, url,
– The purpose of this paper is to compare two design optimization architectures for the optimal design of a complex device that integrates simultaneously the sizing of system components and the control strategy for increasing the energetic performances. The considered benchmark is a battery electric passenger car.

– The optimal design of an electric vehicle powertrain is addressed within this paper, with regards to performances and range. The objectives and constraints require simulating several vehicle operating points, each of them has one degree of freedom for the electric machine control. This control is usually determined separately for each point with a sampling or an optimization loop resulting in an architecture called bi-level. In some conditions, the control variables can be transferred to the design optimization loop by suppressing the inner loop to get a mono-level formulation. The paper describes in which conditions this transformation can be done and compares the results for both architectures.

– Results show a calculation time divided by more than 30 for the mono-level architecture compared to the natural bi-level on the study case. Even with the same models and optimization algorithms, the structure of the problem should be studied to improve the results, especially if computational cost is high.

– The compared architectures bring new guidelines in the field optimal design for electric powertrains. The way to formulate a design optimization with some inner degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on computing time and on the problem understanding.
8KULKARNI Vanaitay, GIRAUD Frédéric, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, AMBERG Michel, BEN MRAD Ridah
"Integration of a torsion-based shear-mode energy harvester and energy management electronics for a sensor module"
Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 28, N°. 10, p. 1346-1357, 11, url,
This work demonstrates the ability of a torsion-based shear-mode energy harvester to power a sensor module by integrating a temperature sensor circuit with a purpose developed piezoelectric energy harvester. A 10-cm3 energy harvester was developed for this application and was found to produce over 200 µW of maximum power through an optimal load resistance under 0.25 gpk acceleration excitation at its resonant frequency of 237 Hz. This harvester was then tested with two interface circuits: a standard interface diode bridge rectifier and a nonlinear synchronous electrical charge extraction circuit that were compared for their suitability in powering the sensor module. Through this, the synchronous electrical charge extraction nonlinear conditioning circuit was found to have superior performance when charging a capacitor and with DC loads at low voltages and was capable of providing a maximum power output of 37 µW under 0.25 gpk acceleration at 237 Hz. This output power was then used to successfully power a temperature sensor module consisting of a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, and a radio-frequency identification memory chip at a sensing frequency of 0.5 Hz.
9AMAMRA Sid-Ali, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier, RAULT Pierre, NGUEFEU Samuel
"Laboratory Demonstration of a Multi-Terminal VSC-HVDC Power Grid"
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. PP, N°. 99, 11,
This paper presents the design, development, control and supervision of a hardware-based laboratory Multi- Terminal-Direct-Current (MTDC) test-bed. This work is a part of the TWENTIES (Transmission system operation with large penetration of Wind and other renewable Electricity sources in Networks by means of innovative Tools and Integrated Energy Solutions) DEMO 3 European project which aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a DC grid through experimental tests. This is a hardware-in-the-loop DC system test-bed with simulated AC systems in real time simulation; the DC cables and some converters are actual, at laboratory scale. The laboratory scale test-bed is homothetic to a full scale high voltage direct current (HVDC) system: electrical elements are the same in per unit. The test-bed is supervised by a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system based on PcVue. Primary control based droop control method to provide DC grid power balance and coordinated control methods to dispatch power as scheduled by transmission system operator (TSO) are implemented. Since primary control acts as converter level by using local measurements, a coordinated control is proposed to manage the DC grid power flow. The implemented system is innovative and achievable for real-time, real-world MTDC-HVDC grid applications.
"Variable Speed Control of a 5-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Including Voltage and Current Limits in Healthy and Open-Circuited Modes"
Electric Power Systems Research, Elsevier, Vol. 140, p. 507-516, ISBN DOI | 10.1016/j.epsr.2016.05.024, 11, url,
This paper proposes a novel variable speed control strategy of a particular 5-phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) in healthy and faulty modes by taking into account the constraints on voltages and currents. These constraints are related to the converter and machine design. The considered faults are open-circuited phases (one phase, two adjacent phases and two non-adjacent phases). A variable speed control strategy is presented, including flux weakening operations. Based on analytical formulations, a numerical computation is proposed to bring out the torque-speed characteristics. This method allows the determination of the current references which ensure the functioning of a 5-phase PMSG at variable speed while keeping phase voltages and currents below their limits. Theoretical, numerical and experimental results are presented. These results are compared in order to validate the proposed approach.
11LA DELFA Patricio, HECQUET Michel, GILLON Frédéric, FAKAM Mathias
"Low space order analysis of radial pressure in SPMSM with analytical and convolution approaches"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 11, 11,
Abstract— This paper presents an analysis of low the space order of the air-gap radial Maxwell pressures in Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (SPMSM) with fractional slot concentrated windings. The air-gap Maxwell pressures result from the multiplication of the flux density harmonics due to magnetomotive forces and permeance linked to the magnet, the armature, and the stator slots and their interactions. One low space order is selected and different approaches are compared to determine the origin of this pressure. First, an analytical prediction tool ACHFO (Analytical Calculation of Harmonic Force Orders) is issues to calculate the space and time orders of these magnetic pressure harmonics while identifying their origin in terms of interactions between magnet, armature and teeth effects. Additionally, the analytical prediction of ACHFO is compared with the flux density convolution and finite element approaches. The main advantage of our tool is the speed of computation. Finally, an experimental Operational Deflection Shape measurement (ODS) is performed to show the deflection shape of the low space order selected.
Keywords— air-gap radial Maxwell pressures; lowest space order; analytical tool; convolution analysis; operational deflection shape.
"Vibration and acoustic noise of industrial inductors associated to converters in railway domain: design and material impacts"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. Issue 35, N°. 6, 11,
Acoustic comfort is an increasingly important factor at the design stage of industrial inductors associated to converters. In addition, power converters in railway domain are more and more compact and powerful. In this paper, inductors with different air-gap materials are used in order to reduce vibration and noise of inductors. Finite element calculations are performed and the detail of the origin of electromagnetic noise is studied. Electric and vibratory measurements (modal and operational analysis) are compared with the numerical calculations.
13MORIN Juliette, COLAS Frédéric, DIEULOT Jean-Yves, GRENARD Sébastien, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Embedding OLTC nonlinearities in predictive Volt Var Control for active distribution networks"
Electric Power System Research, 10
"Improved shunt damping with two negative capacitances: an efficient alternative to resonant shunt"
Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 28, N°. 16, p. 2222-2238, 9
"Enhancing Variable Friction Tactile Display using an ultrasonic travelling wave"
IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 9, url,
In Variable Friction Tactile Displays, an ultrasonic standing wave can be used to reduce the friction coefficient between a user’s finger sliding and a vibrating surface. However, by principle, the effect is limited by a saturation due to the contact mechanics, and very low friction levels require very high vibration amplitudes. Besides, to be effective, the user’s finger has to move. We present a device which uses a travelling wave rather than a standing wave. We present a control that allows to realize such a travelling wave in a robust way, and thus can be implemented on various plane surfaces. We show experimentally that the force produced by the travelling wave has two superimposed contributions. The first one is equal to the friction reduction produced by a standing of the same vibration amplitude. The second produces a driving force in the opposite direction of the travelling wave. As a result, the modulation range of the tangential force on the finger can be extended to zero and even negative values. Moreover, the effect is dependant on the relative direction of exploration with regards to the travelling wave, which is perceivable and confirmed by a psycho-physical study.
16SAMIMI Shabab, GRUSON François, DELARUE Philippe, COLAS Frédéric, BELHAOUANE Moez, GUILLAUD Xavier
"MMC Stored Energy Participation to the DC Bus Voltage Control in an HVDC Link"
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 31, N°. 4, p. 1710-1718, 8,
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is be- coming a promising converter technology for HVDC transmission systems. Contrary to the conventional two- or three-level VSC-HVDC links, no capacitors are connected directly on the dc bus in an MMC-HVDC link. Therefore, in such an HVDC link, the dc bus voltage may be much more volatile than in a conventional VSC-HVDC link. In this paper, a connection between the dc bus voltage level and the stored energy inside the MMC is proposed in order to greatly improve the dynamic behavior in case of transients. EMT simulation results illustrate this interesting property on an HVDC link study case.
"Real-time Switches Fault Diagnosis based on Typical Operating Characteristics of Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines"
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 63, N°. 8, p. 4683-4696, ISBN DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2554540, 8, url,
A novel centroid-based diagnostic method of the power switches in five-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is proposed in this paper. Using a vectorial multi-machine description, a five-phase drive presenting an opened switch or an opened phase faults has typical operating characteristics in comparison to classical three-phase drives. Based on such characteristics, this work aims to provide a simple and robust diagnostic process for switches fault regardless of the shape of the back-EMFs (harmonic components) and the transient states due to the load variation. Original theoretical developments are presented. Experimental results are shown to validate the proposed strategy.
18CHEN Chao, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, TANG Zuqi
"Residual-based a posteriori estimators for the potential formulations of electrostatic and time-harmonic eddy current problems with voltage or current excitation"
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 107, N°. 5, p. 377--394, 8, url,
In this paper, we consider some potential formulations of electrostatic as well as time-harmonic eddy current problems with voltage or current excitation sources. The well-posedness of each formulation is first established. Then, the reliability of the corresponding residual-based a posteriori estimators is derived in the context of the finite element method approximation. Finally, the implementation in an industrial code is performed, and the obtained theoretical results are illustrated on an academic and on an industrial benchmark.
"A method coupling modified vector potential A* and homogenization formulations to model short circuits in lamination stacks"
The European Physical Journal - Applied Physics (EPJ AP), Vol. 75, N°. 3, p. 11, 8,
In this paper a method in 2-D frequency domain is presented to simulate a laminated iron core with a short-circuit between several magnetic sheets. The approach consists in coupling homogenization methods and finite element method. The defect is modeled with A* modified vector potential formulation and the rest of the structure with a homogenization method. The coupled method is applied to a lamination stack containing a short-circuit and compared to the reference, where the A* formulation is applied on the whole domain. Finally, a thermal modeling of lamination stack is presented to study the influence of an insulating defect.
"Improved resistive shunt by means of negative capacitance: new circuit, performances and multi-mode control"
Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 25, N°. 7, p. 075033, 7,
This paper deals with vibration control by means of piezoelectric patches hunted with electrical impedances made up by a resistance and a negative capacitance. The paper analyses most of the possible layouts by which a negative capacitance can be built and shows that a common mathematical description is possible. This allows closed formulations to be found in order to
optimise the electrical network for mono- and multi-mode control. General analytical formulations are obtained to estimate the performance of the shunt in terms of vibration reduction. In particular, it is highlighted that the main effect of a negative capacitance is to artificially enhance the electromechanical coupling factor, which is the basis of performance estimation. Stability issues relating to the use of negative capacitances are especially addressed using refined models for piezoelectric patch capacitance. Furthermore, a new circuit based on a couple of negative capacitances is proposed and tested, showing a better performance than those provided by the usual layouts with a single negative capacitance. Finally, guidelines and analytical formulations to deal with the practical implementation of negative capacitance circuits are provided.
21HAMADA Souad, LOUAI Fatima Zohra, NAIT-SAID Nasreddine, BENABOU Abdelkader
"Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model"
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (JMMM), Vol. 410, p. 137-143, 7, url,
An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.
22TAN Wenhua, MARGUERON Xavier, TAYLOR Laurent, IDIR Nadir
"Leakage Inductance Analytical Calculation for Planar Components with Leakage Layers"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 31, N°. 6, p. 4462-4473, 6, url,
Planar magnetic components are promising solutions for the integration of power electronic systems. The leakage inductance of such components plays an essential role in power converters. In this paper, an analytical modeling method for leakage inductance computation is developped for planar components with plasto-ferrite leakage layers. This method is based on the solution of Poisson’s equations for magneto-static using multilayered Green’s functions. The obtained formulations are general and precise and have been validated by numerical tests. Experimental characterizations have been performed on two magnetic components: A planar LLC and planar common mode choke. The obtained results show that with the described method, the static leakage inductance of planar components can be accurately estimated.
"Torque Ripple Minimization in Non-Sinusoidal Synchronous Reluctance Motors Based on Artificial Neural Networks"
Electric Power Systems Research, Elsevier., 6,
This paper proposes a new method based on Artificial Neural Networks for reducing the torque ripple in a non-sinusoidal Synchronous Reluctance Motor. The Lagrange optimization method is used to solve the problem of calculating optimal currents in the d-q frame. A neural control scheme is then proposed as an adaptive solution to derive the optimal stator currents giving a constant electromagnetic torque and minimizing the ohmic losses.Thanks to the online learning capacity of neural networks, the optimal currents can be obtained online in real time. With this neural control, each machine’s parameters estimation errors and current controller errors can be compensated. Simulation and experimental results are presented which confirm the validity of the proposed method.
24CUELLAR Carlos, IDIR Nadir, BENABOU Abdelkader
"High Frequency Behavioral Ring Core Inductor Model"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 31, N°. 5, p. 3763 - 3772, 5,
The switching of the power semiconductors in static converters is the main source of electromagnetic interferences (EMI). To meet with Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standards, it is necessary to reduce the level of the conducted emissions.
This reduction can be achieved by different techniques including the EMI filters whose design is mainly based on the use of ring core inductors. This element is a key point for designing efficient EMI filters, requiring then accurate inductor high frequency (HF) models. Therefore, the present paper deals with the development of a HF behavioral model of inductors, based on electrical equivalent circuit, for an implementation in circuit simulation software. The aim is to provide a robust and adjustable model under small-signal operating conditions for frequencies up to 100MHz. The proposed model considers the frequency dependent properties of the magnetic core material and also includes the parameterization of the electrical equivalent circuit elements with the number of winding turns and dimension of the magnetic core. Simulations results using the obtained inductor model are validated by impedance measurements with two types of magnetic materials: Ferrite and Nanocrystalline
25AKKARI Samy, DAI Jing, PETIT Marc, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Interaction between the Voltage-Droop and the Frequency-Droop Control for Multi-Terminal HVDC Systems"
IET Generation, Transmission Distribution, Vol. 10, N°. 6, p. 1345–1352, 5
26BACCHUS Alexandre, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, ARGAUD Jean-Philippe, BOURIQUET Bertrand, BIET Mélisande, MACAIRE Ludovic, LE MENACH Yvonnick
"Estimation of FEM Model Parameters Using Data Assimilation and Its Application to an Electrical Machine"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 5, url
27TAYLOR Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, MARGUERON Xavier, LE MENACH Yvonnick, LE MOIGNE Philippe
"Model-Order Reduction of Magneto-harmonic Problems Based on POD. Application to Planar Magnetic Components"
The European Physical Journal - Applied Physics (EPJ AP), Vol. 74, N°. 1, p. 10903, 4, url,
Predetermination of losses and inductance values in the design phase, is necessary for the development
of high-performance magnetic components for power electronics. Numerical modeling, based on
the Finite Element Method (FEM) can be used to determine the characteristics of a particular component
with a complex geometry in high frequency (HF). These models are very accurate but the computation
time required is high compared to analytical models. The Model Order Reduction (MOR) methods can
be applied to reduce the computation time while maintaining high accuracy. Nowadays, the Proper Orthogonal
Decomposition (POD) is the most popular of MOR approaches. This technique has been applied
to study problems in many elds of engineering. In this paper, the POD method is developed to solve
magneto-harmonic problems in order to study a planar magnetic inductor.
"Analysis of electromagnetically-induced vibrations of electrical machines based on spatiogram technique"
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 51, N°. S1, p. S23 - S32, ISBN DOI: 10.3233/JAE-2021, 4
"Comparison of Different EMR-based Models of Traction Power Substations for Energetic Studies of Subway Lines"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 65, N°. 3, p. 1021-1029, 3,
Simulation is a valuable way to develop cleaner transportation systems. Nevertheless, the complexity of this kind of system conducts to complex models, especially to take into account non-linear aspects of traction power substations (TPS). This paper proposes thus different TPS models based on the Energetic Macroscopic Representation. An appropriate model is deduced from comparisons between the different models to realize energetic studies. It is finally applied to the simulation of a simple subway line, which is experimentally validated.
30PIERQUIN Antoine, HENNERON Thomas, BRISSET Stéphane, CLENET Stéphane
"Multirate coupling of controlled rectifier and non-linear finite element model based on Waveform Relaxation Method"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3
31PIERQUIN Antoine, BRISSET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas
"Multidisciplinary optimization formulation for the optimization of multirate systems"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3
32CARON Guillaume, HENNERON Thomas, PIRIOU Francis, MIPO Jean-Claude
"Time periodicity condition of nonlinear magnetostatic problem coupled with electric circuit imposed by Waveform Relaxation Method"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, ISBN 0018-9464, 3, url,
In numerical computation, the finite element (FE) method associated with external electric circuits is often used to evaluate electromagnetic devices with voltage sources. To study the solution of the steady state, the computation time can be prohibitive due to a large transient state compared to the time step used to discretize the time domain. In this paper, a method based on Waveform Relaxation Method is developed in order to impose the steady state of the solution in the case of a nonlinear magnetostatic problem coupled with electric circuit equations.
33LIU Sijun, MAC Duy Hung, CLENET Stéphane, COOREVITS Thierry, MIPO Jean-Claude
"Study of the Influence of the Fabrication Process Imperfections on the Performance of a Claw Pole Synchronous Machine Using a Stochastic Approach"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3, url
34BOUGHANMI Walid, HENROTTE François, BENABOU Abdelkader, LE MENACH Yvonnick
"Finite Element Implementation and Experimental Validation of 2-D/3-D Magnetic Force Formulas"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 2, 3, url,
A framework for the finite element implementation of the formulas of local and global electromagnetic forces is presented. The theoretical framework, based on the Lie derivative, is applicable to 2-D and 3-D problems in the presence of arbitrary materials. The numerical properties of the proposed implementation, in terms of accuracy and convergence, are analyzed. An experimental setup is also presented for which accurate measurements have been carried out, and that can serve as a benchmark for the implementation.
35SCUILLER Franck, ZAHR Hussein, SEMAIL Eric
"Maximum reachable torque, power and speed for five-phase SPM machine with low armature reaction"
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 31, N°. 3, p. 959 - 969, ISBN doi: 10.1109/TEC.2016.2542581, 3, url,
In this paper, the study of the torque and power versus speed characteristics for a family of five-phase Surfacemounted
Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine is carried out. With considering hypotheses (linear magnetic modeling, only first and third harmonic terms in the back-emf and current spectrums), an optimization problem that aims to maximize the torque for given maximum peak voltage and RMS current is formulated: the optimal torque sharing among the two virtual machines (the two dq-axis subspaces) that represent the real five-phase machine is thus calculated for any mechanical speed. For an inverter and a DC voltage sized with only considering the first harmonic of backemf and current, the problem is solved with changing the virtual machine back-emfs and inductances ratios. With the introduction of the maximum torque/speed point, maximum power/speed point and maximum reachable speed, it can be shown that, if the inductance ratio is large enough, for given Volt-Ampere rating, the machine can produce higher torque without reducing its speed range thus meaning that the capability of the inverter to work is improved with the use of the third harmonic. This property is all the truer as the base armature reaction is large. A particular five-phase machine is sized and numerically analyzed to check this property.
"Comparative study of different strategies for the control in flux weakening regions of multiphase permanent magnet synchronous machines: Application to the MHYGALE system"
European Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 18, N°. 3-4, p. 265-283, ISBN 21033641, 3, url,
Multiphase machines are more and more used in applications where a high power density, a low bus voltage, a wide speed range and possibilities to work in fault mode are required. Due to the high number of available degrees of freedom, multiphase machines are not easy to optimally control in the flux weakening region. This paper shows several strategies for the control of multiphase machines in flux weakening regions and compares them in terms of simplicity to implement and optimality in the use of available quantities. Proposed strategies are applied to a five-phase synchronous machine that has been developed for the MHYGALE project proposed by Valeo company.
37MONTIER Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane, GOURSAUD Benjamin
"Transient simulation of an electrical rotating machine achieved through model order reduction"
Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, Vol. 3, N°. 10, 3, url,
Model order reduction (MOR) methods are more and more applied on many different fields of physics in order to reduce the number of unknowns and thus the computational time of large-scale systems. However, their application is quite recent in the field of computational electromagnetics. In the case of electrical machine, the numerical model has to take into account the nonlinear behaviour of ferromagnetic materials, motion of the rotor, circuit equations and mechanical coupling. In this context, we propose to apply the proper orthogonal decomposition combined with the (Discrete) empirical interpolation method in order to reduce the computation time required to study the start-up of an electrical machine until it reaches the steady state. An empirical offline/online approach based on electrical engineering is proposed in order to build an efficient reduced model accurate on the whole operating range. Finally, a 2D example of a synchronous machine is studied with a reduced model deduced from the proposed approach.
"Potential of Vehicle-to-Grid Ancillary Services Considering the Uncertainties in Plug-in Electric Vehicle Availability and Service/Localization Limitations in Distribution Grids"
Applied Energy, Vol. 171, p. 523-540, ISBN 0306-2619, 3, url,
he aim of the paper is to propose an approach for statistical assessment of the potential of plug-in
electric vehicles (PEV) for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) ancillary services, where it focuses on PEVs doing daily
home-work commuting. In this approach, the possible ancillary services (A/S) for each PEV fleet in terms
of its available V2G power (AVP) and flexible intervals are identified. The flexible interval is calculated
using a powerful stochastic global optimization technique so-called ‘‘Free Pattern Search” (FPS). A probabilistic
method is also proposed to quantify the impacts of PEV’s availability uncertainty using the
Gaussian mixture model (GMM), and interdependency of stochastic variables on AVP of each fleet thanks
to a multivariate modeling with Copula function. Each fleet is analyzed based on its aggregated PEV numbers
at different level of distribution grid, in order to satisfy the ancillary services localization limitation.
A case study using the proposed approach evaluates the real potential in Niort, a city in west of France. In
fact, by using the proposed approach an aggregator can analyze the V2G potential of PEVs under its
"Space-Time Field Projection: Finite-Element Analysis Coupled Between Different Meshes and Different Time-Step Settings"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3
40HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane
"Application of the PGD and DEIM to Solve a 3-D Non-Linear Magnetostatic Problem Coupled With the Circuit Equations"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3
41NGUYEN Thu-Trang, MAC Duy Hung, CLENET Stéphane
"Uncertainty Quantification Using Sparse Approximation for Models With a High Number of Parameters: Application to a Magnetoelectric Sensor"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, ISBN 0018-9464, 3
42CLENET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas, IDA Nathan
"Reduction of a Finite-Element Parametric Model Using Adaptive POD Methods—Application to Uncertainty Quantification"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3
43CLENET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas
"Error Estimation for Model Order Reduction of Finite Element Parametric Problems"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 8, p. 1-10, 3, url
"Comparison of energy management strategies of a battery/supercapacitors system for Electric Vehicle under real-time constraints"
Applied Energy, Vol. 163, p. 190-200, 2
"Dynamical Modeling of Li-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicle Applications Based on Hybrid Particle Swarm-Nelder-Mead (PSO-NM) Optimization Algorithm"
Electric Power Systems Research Journal, Elsevier, Vol. 131, N°. C, p. 195-204, 2, url,
In recent years, Li-ion batteries are widely used in various applications, such as electric and hybrid vehicles application. Their higher specific power and energy density, high cycle lifetime and decreasing costs have made them an attractive and alternative energy storage technology to lead-acid or nickel- metal hydride batteries in embedded power supplies. In the present work, the electric modeling of a Li-ion battery cell in real operating conditions imposed by an electric vehicle application is carried out. A dynamic equivalent circuit model has been used to simulate several electrochemical processes occurring in a commercially available 40 Ah Li-ion battery cell with NMC cathode material and graphitic anode. The model is parameterized with measurement data in time-domain using a hybrid Particle Swarm–Nelder–Mead (PSO–NM) optimization algorithm. This last one is used to solve the parameters identification problem of Li-ion battery model. The developed model of Li-ion battery cell has been validated on real driving cycle provided by an urban electric vehicle. Obtained results show that there is a good match between experiment and simulation results with a maximum modeling error less than 0.5%, which proves the well performance of our model and confirm the interest of a hybrid (PSO–NM) optimization algorithm for battery identification parameters.
"Amplitude control of an ultrasonic vibration for a tactile stimulator"
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 21, N°. 3, ISBN DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2016.2535300, 2, url,
This paper describes the control in a (d-q) frame of the vibration amplitude of a tactile stimulator based on ultrasonic vibrations. The goal is to fulfil simultaneously two objectives: maintain a constant level of vibration amplitude and excite the system at the resonance frequency. A new modelling approach is presented in order to facilitate the control and to fulfil the two objectives simultaneously. Then, thanks to an experimental setup, the validation of the new model is performed. Finally, the result of the closed loop control over a wide range of disturbing factors is presented.
"Relation between human perceived friction and finger friction characteristics"
ELSEVIER Tribology International, Vol. 98, p. 261–269, ISBN doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2016.02.031, 2, url,
The topic of this paper concerns the relation between friction perception and finger friction behaviour. Two experiments were processed for some 20 individuals. The aim of the first experiment was to determine the distribution function of the perceived friction variation detected by the individuals, relating to the friction variation of the touched surface generated with a tactile stimulator. The second experiment was to determine the finger friction criterion correlated with the perceived friction variation analysed from psychophysical techniques. This criterion, called the friction contrast, depends on the individual finger and is influenced by the sliding velocity.
48LI Ke, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir
"Characterization Method of SiC-JFET Interelectrode Capacitances in Linear Region"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 31, N°. 2, p. 1528-1540, 2, url,
In order to study switching waveforms of a SiCJFET, its inter-electrode capacitances evolution is necessary when the power device is in linear region. In this paper, the reverse transfer capacitance Cgd is at first characterized by the multiplecurrent- probe method and afterwards validated by the measurement with an impedance analyzer. The output capacitance Coss is measured by the same method and compared with the single-pulse characterization, which shows a huge increase of the apparent capacitance values in linear region. The influence of the power transistor internal gate resistor is thus studied, revealing the inter-electrode capacitances measurement difficulties when the power device is in linear region. The characterization results are allowed to finely model the power transistor of which the switching behaviors are validated with the measurement in a buck converter.
49DO Minh Thang, SOUBDHAN Ted, ROBYNS Benoît
"A study on the minimum duration of training data to provide a high accuracy forecast for PV generation between two different climatic zones"
Renewable Energy, Elsevier, Vol. 85, p. 959–964, 1,
This study focus on the minimum duration of training data required for PV generation forecast. In order to investigate this issue, the study is implemented on 2 PV installations: the first one in Guadeloupe represented for tropical climate, the second in Lille represented for temperate climate; using 3 different forecast models: the Scaled Persistence Model, the Artificial Neural Network and the Multivariate Polynomial Model. The usual statistical forecasting error indicators: NMBE, NMAE and NRMSE are computed in order to compare the accuracy of forecasts.

The results show that with the temperate climate such as Lille, a longer training duration is needed. However, once the model is trained, the performance is better.
"Fault-Tolerant Operation of an Open-End Winding Five-Phase PMSM Drive with Short-Circuit Inverter Fault"
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 63, N°. 1, p. 595-605, ISBN doi: 10.1109/TIE.2014.2386299, 1, url,
Multi-phase machines are well-known for their fault tolerant capability. Star-connected multiphase machines have fault tolerance in open-circuit. For inverter switch short-circuit fault, it is possible to keep a smooth torque of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) if the currents of faulty phases are determined and their values are acceptable. This paper investigates fault-tolerant operations of an open-end five-phase drive, i.e. a multi-phase machine fed with a dual-inverter supply. Inverter switch short-circuit fault is considered and handled with a simple solution. Original theoretical developments are presented. Simulation and experimental results validate the proposed strategy.