Individual information
Pierre VERMEERSCH | ||
Titre | Doctorant | |
Equipe | Réseaux | |
Adresse | Arts et Métiers ParisTech - Campus Lille 8, boulevard Louis XIV 59046 LILLE CEDEX | |
pierre.vermeersch@centralelille.fr | ||
Observation / Thématique de recherche | Convertisseurs Multiniveaux, HVDC | |
Publications |
International Journals |
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[1] Energy and Director Switches Commutation Controls for the Alternate Arm Converter Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 12/2018, URL VERMEERSCH Pierre, GRUSON François, GUILLAUD Xavier, MERLIN Michael Marc Claude, EGROT Philippe |
International Conferences and Symposiums |
[1] Control Design of MMC prototype based on OP 5600 Real Time Simulation and eMEGASIM opal-rt’s 10th International conference on real-time Simulation, 11/2018, Abstract VERMEERSCH Pierre, BELHAOUANE Moez, STANKOVIC Nikola, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier |
Over the last 15 years, VSC-based HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) has become a mature technology for HVDC transmission schemes. The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) represents the recent development among the diverse available topologies of VSC and is allegedly the most promising solution today. In fact, the MMC topology offers significant benefits compared to the traditional two-level VSC (Voltage Source Converter), such as lower losses, distributed storage of capacitive energy, improved scalability to higher voltage ratings, a modular design, low total harmonic distortion and, hence, the potential lack of passive fillers on the AC-side of the converter. For the control design, some simplifying assumptions are made to derive an energy based Average Arm Model (AAM) that takes into account the internal dynamics (i.e. the total energy stored in the converter) which do not exist in the 2-level VSC, as well as the AC and DC side dynamics. This additional internal dynamics implies that the control system of the converter must possess additional control loops that govern the DC current and the total amount of stored energy in the SM capacitors of the MMC. The total stored energy in the MMC is then decoupled from the DC bus, but can also be potentially shared depending on the reference signal of the energy control loop. So, the Energy-based controller strategy is introduced, where extra control loops in cascade are added to regulate the dynamics of interest.
In this work, an energy based control method is developed for the OPAL-RT’s 10 levels MMC prototype model (5 kW – 400 V). Only the high-level control is proposed and implemented thanks to real time simulation model on the CPU and ARTEMiS solver based on State-Space Nodal Solver.
As mentioned above, the energy-based control is based on the possibility to control the AC and DC power separately. Thus, if the power that flowing through the converter is controlled by the AC (resp. DC) power reference, it will be possible to drive the energy level thanks to the other power reference DC (resp. AC). Therefore, to control globally the MMC inner dynamics and state space variables, additional controllers should be added. Thereby, energy based controls have been developed where all the state variables are controlled. In this configuration, the high-level control is composed of outer and inner closed loop controls, which allow controlling the power and the internal MMC energy.
Then, based on the designed energy-based controller, the OPAL-RT’s MMC prototype model has been simulated under different operation conditions arising a good performance in steady state as well as during transients.
Moreover, the advantages of the Per-unit approach such as the control design as well as the power converter sizing have been carried out across this work. Thus, the per-unit approach is performed on one hand for high voltage characteristic of MMC where the per-unit parameters are derived from EMTP library (based on INELFE project) and on the other hand for the low scale OPAL-RT mockup. As conclusion, the per-unit approach can be used for designing the control as previously said but it can be also very useful for the sizing process of the converter. While the per-unit approach has been used for many years for the classical power system elements (transformer, synchronous machines), it can be extended also to the sizing of power converter. So, in this work, the per-unit quantities of the main elements (capacitor, inductances) will be highlighted. Then, the high voltage characteristic will be considered as a reference and the low voltage characteristics will be compared and some conclusions will be underlined. |
[2] Director switches commutation control for the Alternate Arm Converter Electrimacs 2017, 07/2017, Abstract VERMEERSCH Pierre, GRUSON François, GUILLAUD Xavier, MERLIN Michael Marc Claude, EGROT Philippe |
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is the most accepted solution
to connect a HVDC grid to an AC transmission grid. The Alternate Arm Converter
(AAC) is another promising structure since it allows a DC short-circuits blocking
capability similarly to the Full Bridge MMC while having a small impact on the
power losses. Its footprint is smaller to the MMC since the needed number of
modules is closer to 50% and the SM Capacitors are about three times smaller. The
AAC is a hybrid structure between a 2 level VSC converter and an MMC one.
Elements hampering the development of the AAC are its complexity to model and
control, in particular the opening procedure of the director switches (DS) since these
DS are directly connected in series to the arm inductance. This paper proposes a fast
method to control the opening of the DS at zero current. The first part is focused on
the instantaneous model and current control of the converter and AAC. The second
part is focused on the opening method of the DS without generating overvoltage in
the converter and taking into account the technical parameters of the various
elements of the AAC. Finally, simulation results validate the DS opening control of
the AAC converter. |
[3] Energy Control for the Alternate Arm Converter IEEE PES PowerTech, 06/2017, Abstract GRUSON François, VERMEERSCH Pierre, GUILLAUD Xavier, EGROT Philippe |
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is one of
the available solution to connect a HVDC grid to an AC
transmission one. The Alternate Arm Converter (AAC) is a
promising structure since it allows a DC short-circuit blocking
capability as the Full Bridge MMC while having equivalent
losses to the half-bridge MMC. Its footprint is smaller than the
MMC since the needed number of modules is closer to 50% and
the SM Capacitors are about three times smaller. The AAC is a
hybrid structure between a 2 level VSC converter and an MMC
one. The main drawback of the AAC is the complexity of its
control. This paper presents first, the instantaneous model and
current control of the AAC. The second part is focused on the
energetic model of the AAC and its control. Finally, simulation
results validate the quality of the proposed control. |
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